Open Access Original Research Article

Commonness and Risk Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections among Inmates of Port Harcourt Children’s Home

Adedokun Ambali Amudatu, Elele Kingsley, Gboeloh LeBari Barine

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i630391

Background: Gastrointestinal parasites are important health problems among most societies.

Objectives: Prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal parasites among inmates of Port Harcourt children home.

Methods: This prospective study was carried out in August and September 2019 at the Port Harcourt children home. Fecal samples were collected from 63 healthy looking inmates and examined macroscopically and microscopically (using normal saline and iodine wet mount, formalin-ether sedimentation and modified Ziehl Neelsen staining) methods. Finally, data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square (X2) test.

Results: Result showed that 74.6% (47/63) of the female and 25.4% (16/63) of the male tested positive for GIPs. Age group 11-15 years had prevalence of 17(44.8%). The common parasites identified were A. lumbricoides 10(15.9%), T. trichiura 7(11.1%) and hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale) 2(3.2%). The educational level prevalence of 10(52.6%) was observed among the primary level (p<0.05). The risk factors such as: the use of drug in the last three months, hand washing with soap after using the toilet and washing of hands after contact with soil had significance of p<0.05 while putting on foot wear outside the house p>0.05.

Conclusion: The distribution of gastrointestinal parasitic infections is high among the children. Necessary treatment intervention safety measures should be routinely carried out to reduce the spread to zero tolerance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Isolated from Fishes and Shellfishes in Creek Road/Bonny Estuary, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Constancy Prisca Aleru

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 11-22
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i630392

Resistance bacteria may be transferred to humans through the consumption of fishes and shellfishes. Hence, this study characterised E. coli isolates from fishes and shellfishes in Creek Road/Bonny Estuary, with the use of molecular techniques. Seventy two (72) fishes and shellfishes were examined for the presence of E. coli. Most probable number (MPN) technique, Eijkman test and molecular techniques were used for the isolation and identification of E. coli. The analysis was performed seasonally, which was during the end of rainy season (November), start of rainy season (April) and middle of rainy season (July). Eleven (11) isolates of E. coli (randomly selected) recovered from the fishes and shellfishes were screened for resistance genes in the pathgotypes of E. coli (EHEC, EPEC, EAEC, ETEC and EIEC, including SHV, CTX-M, TEM and MCR genes. The results showed that both coliforms and E. coli were recovered from the fishes and shellfishes. The distribution of the resistance genes in the E. coli isolates from fishes and shellfishes is: fishes – SHV (9.5%); CTX-M (11.1%); TEM (7.9%); MCR (0%); str1 and str2 (6.3%); esV and bfA (3.2%); aaiC (7.9%); elt (6.3%); invE (4.7%) and shellfishes - SHV (5.6%); CTX-M (5.6%); TEM (7.4%); MCR (0%); str1 and str2 (3.7%); esV and bfA (0%); aaiC (0%); elt (0%); invE (3.7%). In fishes and shellfishes, the most detected of all the genes are CTX-M and TEM, respectively. The data from this study suggest that fishes and shellfishes can be reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes. These genes can easily be transmitted to humans through the consumption of raw or improperly cooked fishes and shellfishes, creating public health problem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Gram-negative Bacteria from Different Fresh Retail Vegetables in Nigeria

C. Jesumirhewe, A. A. Dauda, S. I. Akhimien, W. Ruppitsch

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i630393

Aim: The proportion of food borne disease outbreaks as a result of contaminated products has increased over the years. In this study, the genetic characteristics of antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria from different fresh retail vegetables in Okada, Edo state Nigeria was investigated.

Place and Duration of Study: In April-May 2021, the study was carried out in the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Igbinedion University Okada Edo state Nigeria.

Methodology: One hundred and eight isolates were isolated from sixteen different retail leafy and salad vegetable samples. Recovered isolates from samples were identified using standard microbiological techniques. Species identification for ten randomly selected isolates was performed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer method for 15 antibiotics. Isolates were characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS).

Results: Species identification using MALDI-TOF-MS and ribosomal MLST assigned the 10 randomly selected isolates to four different species. Identified isolates include Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter baumanii and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. Out of the 10 randomly selected isolates, 60% (6/10) were antibiotic resistant in the antibiotic susceptibility test. WGS data confirmed the identities of the isolates except Proteus vulgaris identified as P. terrae. More than one resistant determinant was detected on the draft genome sequence of 80% (8/10) of the randomly selected isolates especially the regulatory system modulating antibiotic efflux CRP and the plasmid mediated quinolone resistant determinant qnrD1. Significantly, one Proteus mirabilis isolate was sensitive to the antibiotics in the phenotypic testing but had resistance determinants present.

Conclusion: This study provides genomic characterization of antibiotic resistant isolates from retail leafy and salad vegetables from Nigeria. Further study is important to understand the public health importance of such resistance and the amount of risk posed to human health by these resistant organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Eosin Solution Exposed to Sunlight against Anopheles Mosquito Larvae

J. C. Ogbu, O. A. Ollor, E. G. Nwokah, V. N. Agi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 31-42
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i630394

Mosquitoes are a menace for millions of people around the world, they are vectors for destructive microorganisms which cause diseases like Malaria, Dengue fever and Lymphatic filariasis, affecting people in developing countries and areas with tropical climates. Anopheles, a predominant genus transmits malaria, and the World Health Organization have shown that 350,000 lives especially children and pregnant women are lost annually by it. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of eosin solution exposed to sunlight on larvae of Anopheles mosquito. The use of control method was aid at eliminating the larva stages of the mosquito life cycle. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) Anopheles mosquito larvae were harvested using dipper with handle and net from drainages at Eagle Island and Rivers State University both in Port Harcourt. Five different concentrations of Eosin solutions were prepared in volumes of 1000 microlitre (µl), 800µl, 600µl, 400µl, 200µl after a stock solution of 1gram(g) in 100ml and a control, the physicochemical parameters of the solutions were determined using Extech model DO700 measuring instrument. Twenty (20) mosquito larvae, were carefully introduced into each of the concentrations, exposed to sunlight and observed for 24 hours (hrs) for a period of six (6) days for susceptibility. A hundred percent (100%) mortality was recorded in eosin volume of 1000µl and 800µl. The separate solutions of eosin showed significant effects of their concentrations on the Anopheles mosquito larvae of P-value 0.017 at P<0.05. The result obtained for the physicochemical parameters were; pH 5.24, temperature 30.4oC, conductivity 168µS/cm, salinity 0.08%, total dissolved solids 118 milligram per litre(mg/L) and dissolved oxygen was 6.5mg/L for the control. Changes occurred in the values of the dissolved oxygen before and after exposure to sunlight in all the dilutions. The results obtained showed that after 24 hrs, the mortality rate of the larvae increased, indicating that Anopheles mosquito larvae expose to concentrations of eosin solutions results in their mortality within 48 hrs. It may be concluded that this study has provided some evidence of larvicidal effect of eosin solution exposed to sunlight on larvae of Anopheles mosquito.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Profile and Resistance of Escherichia coli to Beta-lactam for Patients Consulted at Douala Laquintinie Hospital

Essola Josiane Kikie, Medi Sike Christiane, Embolo Enyegue Elisee Libert, Koa Paulin Kleber, Ornella Vanessa Alactio Tangueu, Djim-Adjim-Ngana Karyom, Adiogo Dieudonne

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 43-50
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i630395

Enterobacteriaceae are the most common causes of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. They are usually treated with beta-lactam antibiotics, i.e., penicillins, broad-spectrum cephalosporins, and carbapenems (Imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem). In order to evaluate the resistance profile of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to beta-lactam antibiotics, a 3-year retrospective study was carried out in the medical biology laboratory of the Laquintinie Hospital in Douala. The aim was to compare the behavior of Escherichia coli bacteria to penicillins, carbapenems, and cephalosporins. In order to achieve this objective, we used the results obtained from E. coli strains isolated from urine, cervico-vaginal fluid, puncture fluid, pleural fluid and pus samples. Identification was confirmed using the API 20 E Enterobacteriaceae system of biochemical testing and the VITEK 2 system. The VITEK 2 system was used to perform the antibiogram. Statistical analyses obtained from GraphPad Prim V 5.0 software allowed us to perform tests such as ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman correlations. Preliminary results show that E. coli bacteria are highly resistant to penicillins and significantly susceptible to cephalosporins of all generations if they are not ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases). Data on carbapenem behavior show less resistance and moderate susceptibility.