Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Characteristics, Antibiotic Resistance and Molecular Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Teaching Hospital at South Taiwan

Hsi-Lan Yang, Ya-Fang Huang, Liang-Lan Hsing, Wen-Ling Shih, Yi-Ping Lu, Han Hsiang Huang, Ming-Hui Liao

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 513-524
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16457

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become an issue of public health worldwide. The clinical features, molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of MRSA isolates from South Taiwan from January to December 2009 were collected and analyzed.
Methods: A total of 439 patients were invited to participate in this investigation. Antibiotic resistance was assessed by broth microdilution and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to identify the molecular genotypes.
Results: Among 439 culture-proven S. aureus isolates, MRSA accounted for 47.8% (210/439). The remaining 52.2% (229/439) isolates were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). MRSA isolated from intensive care unit (ICU) were significantly more than MSSA and the percentage of MRSA strains isolated from the respiratory tract was significantly higher than that of MSSA. The resistant rates of MRSA to penicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, clindamycin and erythromycin were over 80% as no MRSA isolates were resistant to vancomycin, linezolid and teicoplanin. Antimicrobial data of MRSA strains were categorized into 10 patterns, of which 5 main patterns accounted for 95.7% (n=201). PFGE characterization of MRSA was grouped into 20 genotypes (A through T). Among 20 major pulsotypes, clusters A, E, J, and N of MRSA isolates were associated with clinical and antimicrobial importance.
Conclusion: This study revealed crucial information of MRSA typing and essential connections among clinical characteristics, antimicrobial patterns and MRSA pulsotypes. The PFGE pulsotype may be coupled to distinct antibiotic-resistant patterns, special specimen sources and specific hospital department where MRSA isolated. The results can be regionally used in infection control and antibiotic stewardship of MRSA.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) from Nigeria

Oladipupo A. Lawal, Kehinde O. Amisu, Segun K. Akinyemi, Adetayo A. Sanni, Mthokozisi B. C. Simelane, Rebamang A. Mosa, Andy R. Opoku

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 525-531
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17900

Aims: The aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of different organs of Bidens pilosa.
Study Design: The design includes the extraction of crude extracts from the air-dried leaves, stems and roots samples of B. pilosa and the screening and determination of antibacterial activity of the extracts.
Place and Duration of Study: The leaves, stems and roots of Bidens pilosa were exhaustively extracted separately with double distilled water. The extracts were tested for the presence of secondary metabolites. The antibacterial activity of extracts was tested against some clinical and environmental isolates using agar-disc diffusion and broth-microdilution methods.
Results: The leaf extract exhibited significant inhibition on growth of the bacteria tested than the seed and root extracts. The mean zones of inhibition of the leaf extract ranged between (9.0±0.6 - 27.3±1.2) mm compared with (6.0±0.6- 11.7±0.6) mm and (6.0±0.6 - 16.3±0.6) mm for the seed and root extracts, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC), 1.3 - >10 mg/ml was found to be equal or twice the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 0.6 - >10 mg/ml for the leaf extract and twice or greater for the stem and root extracts.
Conclusion: The activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Bidens pilosa provides the scientific justification for the use of this plant in traditional medicinal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Properties of Ocimum sanctum and Calotropis gigantea Leaves

Carrell Sarah Bansavatar, Rajini Kurup, Abdullah Adil Ansari

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 532-539
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17062

Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial and phytochemical activity of hexane and ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum and Calotropis gigantea leaves on clinical pathogens.
Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion test was used to check the antimicrobial activity of the hexane and ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants. Three different concentrations of the tested agents were used for the study. The values of Zone of Inhibition were tabulated according to the concentration of the tested agent and data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA tests. Phytochemicals were also detected in all the four extracts.
Results: All the plants extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against selected clinical pathogens. Hexane and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum and Calotropic gigantea leaves showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus at the 4% concentration. At 4% concentration the ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum has a greater effect on the tested microbes, having a mean and standard deviation of 8.37±0.57 on the most resistant microbe; being Escherichia coli. Phytochemical analysis of active extracts demonstrated the presence of common phyto-constituents like tannins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids.
Conclusion: The hexane and ethanolic extract of O. sanctum and C. gigantea has considerable antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, E. coli and Klebsiella spp.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Outbreak of Pestivirus Infection in Sheep in West Kordofan, Sudan

Yahia Hassan Ali, Intisar Kamil Saeed, Abuobeida Mohammed, Salma Bushra Elmagboul, Fahad Elghazali

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 540-545
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16086

During April- May 2010 an outbreak of a disease with obvious nervous and respiratory signs in sheep was reported in west Kordofan State in western Sudan. Four flocks at four different locations in the State were investigated. The deaths by the disease versus the total number of animals in the different areas were 18/150, 1/200, 3/280 and 17/300. The main clinical symptoms observed in adults and young lambs were central nervous signs and respiratory signs; most lambs were weak and emaciated with rough coats. Sera were collected from 11, 18, 19 and 4 of animals in the four flocks, respectively. Bacteriological examination on tissue samples did not reveal any positive results. Using competitive ELISA, antibodies against pestivirus were detected in 10/11, 7/18, 7/19 and 1/4, respectively of examined sheep sera in the different locations. RT/PCR using pestvirus specific primers to examine the lung and sera samples showed positive results for one lung and 17 sera samples, and sequence data indicated that the causative agent was Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1). This is the first report of BVDV-1 outbreak in sheep in Sudan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology, Phenotyping and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Enterohaemrrhagic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Cases of Diarrhea

Rasha A. Alm El-Din, Ahmed Abd Elbaset

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 546-553
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/18252

Aim of the Work: this work aimed to study the Prevalence, Epidemiology, Phenotyping, and Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Enterohaemrrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains among cases of infantile and childhood diarrhea in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 200 pediatric cases of acute diarrhea. E. coli was isolated from stool specimens and identified by conventional cultural methods which is confirmed by biochemical reactions. EHEC strains were identified by latex agglutination test. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolated EHEC strains was done by disc diffusion method.

Results: out of 200 cases of diarrhea E. coli could be isolated from 48 cases (24%). Of these 48 E. coli strains; 5 strains were identified as EHEC2.5% (5/200); one strain was identified as O157 and the other 4 strains were identified as non O157 (O26, O91, O103, O111, O128, O145). As regard the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates EHEC highest sensitivity was recorded to Amikacin (100%) as the five strains of EHEC were sensitive to amikacin, followed by ceftriaxone (60%) as only 3 strains of EHEC recorded sensitivity to ceftriaxone. All the 5 strains of EHEC were resistant to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and imepenem andcefepim, amoxicillin/clavulanic acids (00.00% sensitivity).
Conclusion: There was high incidence of EHEC among cases of infantile and childhood diarrhea. EHEC serotype O157:H7 is an important pathogen responsible for cases of bloody diarrhea. Phenotyping of E. colimust be added to the routine laboratory work of infantile diarrhea which helps in proper choice of antimicrobial chemotherapy that will improve the prognosis and sequel of diarrhea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Respiratory Tract Infections in Children Infected with HIV/AIDS in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

O. O. Kolo, M. Galadima, S. Y. Daniyan, M. E. Abalaka

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 554-559
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17108

Children with HIV/AIDS compared to immune competent ones develop respiratory tract infections in a pattern that are different in nature, severity and/or frequency. 50 children with laboratory confirmed HIV infection and 80 children with laboratory confirmation of HIV negative status were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 6 years to 14 years. All the patients were from urban areas. The study was aimed at determine the spectrum of bacterial agent that causes respiratory tract infection among HIV infected children as well as HIV uninfected children in Minna, Niger State and comparing the prevalence rate within different range of CD4 count. Sputum culture was taken to determine the profile of bacterial infection. All isolates from the cultures were identified using microbact identification kit (source: Oxoid Limited, United Kingdom). The frequency of bacteria isolates from HIV seropositive children was higher than the pneumoniae isolates from HIV Sero-negative Streptococcus pneumoniae 15(89%) and Klebsiella pneumonia20(89%) was the most common Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria identified respectively. 30% of the studied children were positive for at least one pathogenic bacterium. There was no significant difference between the prevalence rate of respiratory tract infection among HIV infected children and uninfected children and the rate of infection among children with CD4 count less than 100cell/ul was found to be significantly higher than those with higher CD4 counts at p level < 0.05.