Open Access Short Research Article

Aeromycoflora of Animal Rearing Houses of Bangalore, India

R. Pavan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 395-402
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16698

The present study was carried out to investigate the indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in the animal rearing houses viz., rabbit house, cow shed, poultry farm and swine house in Hessaraghatta village, Bangalore city was carried out by Andersen two stage sampler using an Malt Extract Agar (MEA) media were collected fortnightly from January 2011 to December 2011. In our study, fungal spores are ubiquitous and quite dominant in the indoors as against the outdoor environments, a total of 97335.13 CFU/m3 was observed from indoor compared to outdoor 25492.11 CFU/m3 airborne fungi recorded. The most common fungal spores in indoor environment were Cladosporium herbarumCladosporium sp., C. macrocarpumC. cladosporioidesFusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus niger and Penicillium species, Whereas in outdoor Alternaria sp., Alternaria alternataAspergillus sp., Cladosporium herbarumCladosporium sp., C. macrocarpumC. cladosporioides and Fusarium species were observed. The present study helped in preparation of fungal calendars for the region, which may useful for physician to identify the cause of fungal spores related problem affecting human health of animal rearing house workers.

Open Access Short Research Article

Impact of Burning E-waste on Soil Physicochemical Properties and Soil Microorganisms

A. I. Sanusi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 434-442
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16874

Aims: To investigate the impact of burning e-waste on soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties at sub-surface.
Study Design: Soil samples from six different spots were collected at a depth of 0–6 cm from e-waste dumpsite where e-waste are burnt to disposed them. The samples were then mixed together to give a general view of the impact of burning the e-waste on the dumpsite soil. The soil sample was then subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses. This was repeated for soil without e-waste.
Place and Duration of Study: Soil samples were collected from e-waste dumpsite Alaba International Market, Lagos State, Nigeria.
Methodology: The organic carbon and organic matter were determined using gravimetric techniques, nitrogen was determined using kjeldhal methods, exchangeable bases were determined using flame emission spectrometry and EDTA classical methods titration, heavy metals determination in soil samples were estimated using atomic absorption spectrometer (ASS) and the microbiological analyses were carried out using standard methods.
Results: Burning of e-waste increased the moisture content, organic matter, organic carbon, organic nitrogen, exchangeable bases (with the exception of calcium and sodium) and all the heavy metals assessed as compared to soil without e-waste. The concentration of the heavy metals in e-waste soil is Pb>Zn>Mn>Ni>Co>Cr>Cd while the concentration in soil without e-waste is Zn>Pb>Mn>Cr>Ni>Co>Cd. However, decreased were observed in the pH and organic phosphorus of the e-waste soil. Furthermore, eight microorganisms were isolated from soil of e-waste dumpsite where e-waste is burnt while five microorganisms were isolated from soil without e-waste. The bacterial population ranged from 1.68x107–1.92x107 cfu/ml while the fungi population ranged from 1.0x105–2.0x105 sfu/ml. The genera of microorganisms isolated were; Bacillus, Proteus, Enterobacter, Staphylococcus, Candida, Zoopage, Articulospora and Varicosporium.
Conclusion: The formation of substances such as ash and charred matter due to burning might improve soil properties. On the other hand the burning leads to increase in the soil’s heavy metals, which might become toxic to organisms in the soil if their permissible level is surpassed. This causes environmental pollution and therefore it is useful to study the impact of e-waste burning on soil properties. Moreover, it is important to consider a recycling strategy in order to protect the soil and its living organisms from harsh process of burning e-waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sequence Variations of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Genes in Cervical Cancer Isolates from Gabon

Samira Zoa Assoumou, Luc Magloire Anicet Boumba, Angelique Ndjoyi Mbiguino, Barthelemy Mabika Mabika, Ernest Belembaogo, Abdelkrim Khattabi, Moulay Mustapha Ennaji

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 386-394
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17225

Aims: HPV-16 variants distribution is reported to differ geographically and in their oncogenic potential for progression to cervical cancer. In this study, we investigated the HPV 16 variants distribution among women from Gabon.
Methodology: Amplification of E6 and E7 genes of 29 HPV-16 isolates was performed by using type-specific primers PCR and then directly sequenced. The sequences obtained were aligned with the HPV-16 GenBank reference sequences.
Results: Out of the 29 samples investigated, 25 were successfully amplified. In the 25 samples analyzed 9 and 3 nucleotide changes in E6 and E7 gene respectively were found. In the E6 gene, the most frequently observed mutation were C143G, G145T, T286A, A289G, C335T which led Q14D and H78Y non- synonymous amino acid variations. The others mutations found C109T; G132C; G132T; A403G were detected in 24% (6 of 25), 68% (17 of 25), 32% (8 of 25), 32% (8 of 25) respectively. The E7 gene appears to be better conserved than the E6 gene. Only 3 mutations were detected of which two were silent: T789C and T795G and the third A647G was missense mutation with substitution of Asparagine to Serine (N29S). This mutation was present in 32% (8 of 25) samples. All the variants detected in this study belonged to the Af1 (68%; 17 of 25) and Af2 (32%; 8 of 25) lineages
Conclusion: This study reported for the first time the distribution of HPV-16 E6 and E7 genetic variants in cervical cancer cases in Gabon. Our results highlight the predominance of African lineage in Gabonese population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antbiogram of Bacterial Isolates Causing Urinary Tract Infections at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki I (FETHA I)

M. N. Alo, A. Y. Saidu, M. x M. Alhassan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 403-417
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16696

Aims: This study is aimed to ascertain the prevalence and antibiogram of bacterial isolates causing urinary tract infection in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki I (FETHA I) with the view to establishing a base line for the cautious use of antibiotics in the hospital.
Study Design: Cross sectional.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki I (FETHA I) within the period of August to December, 2014.
Methodology: One thousand patients (500 males and 500 females) presenting with UTI attending outpatient clinics of FETHA I were sampled for this study. Fresh midstream urine samples were aseptically collected in sterile containers from the subjects and plated on different bacteriological media. Organisms growing on the media were purified and identified using microbiological standards.
Results: A total of 262 (52.8%) of the females while 156 (31.2%) are males positive for UTIs. The UTI prevalence rate was 42.0% in all patients; however, the prevalence rate was significantly higher in females than in males (females: 52.8%; males: 31.2%; P = 0.000), hence the χ2 test for trend results showed significant variations (P < 0.05) between the female to male ratio variables. Bacterial isolates were obtained from the females positive for UTI namely Escherichia coli (35.8%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus(18.2%), Proteus species (8.0%), Klebsiella species (7.3%), Enterobacter species (7.3%), Streptococcus viridans (1.5%), Streptococcus pyogenes (1.5%) and Citrobacter species (1.5%). In males positive for UTIs the following organisms were isolated E. coli (54.3%), followed by S. aureus (18.5%), Enteroccus faecalis (1.2%) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (1.2%). The isolates were subjected to susceptibility test using the commonly prescribed antibiotics in the hospital. The result of susceptibility testing showed that more than 60% of the isolates to Ceftriaxone and Perfloxacin, while more than 40.0% were susceptible to Gentamycin, Ciprofloxacin and Nitrofuratoin. Very low susceptibility levels were observed with Tetracyline (16.7%), Chloramphenicol (16.7%) and Amoxicillin (16.7%), while Fluclozacillin had the lowest. S. saprophyticus(0.83%) showed the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index (0.83%), followed by S. epidermidids (0.75%), Enterococcus species (0.75%), S. viridanis (0.33%) and Citrobacter species (0.33%).
Conclusion: Our findings showed high prevalence of antibiotic resistant urinary tract pathogens and therefore calls for urgent antibiotic review in the treatment of UTIs among patients within FETHA I Abakaliki.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and In-vitro Antibacterial Activity of the Leaves and Stem Extracts of Sesbania grandiflora (L.) against Some Clinical Isolates

S. Abubakar, B. O. Akanbi, K. O. Nasir-Naeem, Z. N. Abdulsalam

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 424-433
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15672

Aim: The antimicrobial effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from leaves and stem of Sesbania grandiflora (L) against four clinical isolates, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteric and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major aim of this research work.
Study Design: An experimental study.
Place and Duration: This research work was carried out in Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO) and Department of Microbiology, University of Abuja, Nigeria, between July, 2013 to July, 2014.
Methodology: Using well agar diffusion method, the sensitivity patterns of both crude and different fractional concentrations of ethanolic and aqueous leaves and stem extracts of S. grandiflora were tested. Cold maceration method of extraction was used to extract the plant materials. Fifty grammes of the ground dry sample was placed in 500 cmof distilled water and 95% ethanol for 72 hours. After which the supernatant was decanted off, then evaporated to dryness in (Buchi, water bath UK) at 40°C and the crude extract collected was weighed and stored by refrigeration at temperature of 4°C for further uses.
Results: The extracts showed significantly varying inhibitory activities against the test organisms as evidenced by the zone diameter of inhibition. The aqueous and ethanolic leaves extract were found to be active against S. aureus in all the concentrations with zone diameter of inhibition ranging between 9.0±00 mm to 24.0±0.21 mm while the ethanolic stem extract was found to be active against S. enterica with zone diameter of inhibition ranging between 11±0.30 mm to 23±0.21 mm. The fractions obtained from the column chromatography were found to be active against S. aureus, with zone diameter of inhibition ranging between 8±0.00 mm to 21±0.00 mm. Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol were used as positive control. Both the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the extracts ranged between 125 mg/ml to 31.25 mg/ml and 62.5 mg/ml to 15.63 mg/ml respectively. The phytochemical screening divulged the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and terpenoids in both the plant extracts, pholobatannins were absent in aqueous stem extract while anthraquinonnes were absent in both aqueous and ethanolic leaves and stem extracts respectively.
Conclusion: S. grandiflora may represent new sources of antimicrobials with stable, biologically active components that can establish a scientific base for the use of plants in modern medicine. This research also justified the scientific basis for the use of the crude leaves extract in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of diseases especially in treatment of typhoid fever and gastrointestinal infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Carbapenem Resistance among Multi-drug Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Uganda

Lucas M. Ampaire, Victoria Katawera, Dan Nyehangane, Yap Boum, Joel Bazira

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 418-423
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17055

Background: Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae are on the increase worldwide and their spread has become a global challenge. Escalating the challenge is the possibility that many of these are Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). This further complicates patient management. The magnitude of MDR-CPE in many developed settings has been reported, however, there is paucity of data from resource limited settings. We evaluated the epidemiology of MDR-CPE of clinical origin in South Western Uganda.
Methods: From September 2013 to June 2014, all Enterobacteriaceae isolated from diverse specimens obtained from patients attending Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, South-western Uganda, were screened for MDR in a laboratory-based cross sectional study. Isolates found to be MDR were screened for carbapenem susceptibility/resistance phenotypically by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines and genetically using the multiplex real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).
Results: Of the 658 strains isolated, 183 (27.8%) were MDR and 68 (37.15%) of those MDR exhibited at least one form of carbapenem resistance with 23 (12.57%) and 56 (30.60%) isolates expressing phenotypic and genetic resistance, respectively. Eleven MDR-CPE (6.01%) isolates exhibited both phenotypic and genotypic resistance to carbapenems. Only blaVIM and blaOXA-48 genes were detected among the genetically resistant isolates.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of MDR-CPE calls for aggressive infection control and prevention strategies, including reinforcement of hand hygiene, using contact precautions and early detection of CPE through use of targeted surveillance and molecular techniques in resource limited settings.