Open Access Short Research Article

Ring Worm Skin Infection in a Rural Community of Bushenyi (Uganda)

Suleiman Abubakar Tsamiya, Muhammad Aliyu Usman, Morris Aheebwa Seth, Evelyn Michelle Aguti, Gilbert Akampurira, Musa Sani Dawasa, Gabriel Opolot Ononge, Hassan Abdinoor Hassan, Nancy Mitaki, Lisa Nkatha Micheni, Isaac Echoru, Keneth Iceland Kasozi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/18169

Aim: Ring worm skin infections which have continuously been neglected in several communities of sub Saharan Africa, thus leading to the development of herbal remedies as communities seek to find solutions to the menace. The aim of this study was to assess the community skin ring worm infections and their associated risk factors in South Western Uganda.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study in a rural community of Bushenyi district in South Western Uganda. A total of 34 homesteads were randomly selected and a semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection.
Results and Discussion: The study showed that majority of homesteads which accessed water from non protected springs, 41.2% had ring worm skin infection of the head (tinea capitis), 11.8% due to tinea corporis and 5.9% either due to tinea unguiumtinea cruristinea corporistinea circinata, or tinea glabrosatinea pedis and tinea barbae which are generalized in different parts of the body. The major risk factors identified were water security (P = 0.01) and community treatment practices (P = 0.002) against the dermatophytes. Despite the fact that some homesteads attempted to treat the skin infections, other homesteads didn’t bother to seek treatment thus posing a major risk factor for the re-infection in the community.
Conclusion: The adoption of ethno-medicinal plants for management of skin infection has been shown to be greatly adopted by this rural community, thus a follow up study to understand the anti-fungal activity of a selected herbal plant from the community is highly encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteremia in Children Infected with HIV/AIDS in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

O. O. Kolo, M. Galadima, S. Y. Daniyan, M. E. Abalaka, Talatu B. Saidu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17110

Bacterial infection was reported to be one of the leading causes of high mortality among children. Bacteremia is a frequent complication found among HIV infected children and usually associated with a poor prognosis. This study was aimed at determine the spectrum of bacterial agent that cause bacteremia among HIV infected children in Minna, Niger State and thus determine the difference between the frequency of occurrence of the isolates from HIV infected with HIV uninfected children. The experimental design adopted was simple randomized non-block design. This study was carried out children attending General Hospital, Minna Niger state, pediatric out-patient department between June 2013 and December, 2013. 91 HIV infected children and 100 uninfected were included in this study. Their ages range from two years to 12 years. Blood culture samples were used to determine the profile of bacterial infection. All isolates from the cultures were identified using Microbact identification kit. The prevalence rate of bacteremia among HIV infected and HIV uninfected children was found to be 21% and 8% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus (11.88%) was the most common gram positive while Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.86%) was the most common gram negative organism from both HIV infected and uninfected participants. There was an increase in non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. without any S. typhi isolated. Bacteremia infection among HIV infected children was found to be significantly higher than those found from HIV negative children (p < 0.05). Bacteremia infections in children are basically caused by gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli. The prevalence rate of bacteremia was found to be significantly higher among HIV infected participants than HIV uninfected children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Moringa oleifera Leaf against Isolates of Beef Offal

Yetunde E. Alozie, Comfort U. Sonye

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/17554

This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial potentials of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera against microorganisms isolated from beef offal. The beef offal samples (liver, kidney and intestine) were purchased from an abattoir in Port Harcourt while the Moringa oleifera leaves were harvested from the farm, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Plating was done using the spread plate method while test for inhibitory potential was done using disc diffusion method. Six species of bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptocccus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris) and two mould species (Rhizopus spp and Mucor spp) were identified. Antimicrobial potentials of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of M. oleifera on isolates were tested at various concentrations (50, 100, 200 and 400 mgml-1). Ethanol extract of M. oleifera showed strong antimicrobial activity and concentration dependent inhibitory effect on beef offal isolates while the aqueous extract was ineffective on test bacteria isolates. At a concentration of 400 mg/ml, zones of inhibition recorded were highest with ethanol extracts for Staphylococcus aureus (14.00±0.6 mm), Bacillus cereus(13.00±0.1 mm) and Proteus vulgaris (12.00±0.4 mm). Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was at 200 mg ml-1 for ethanol extract and 400 mg ml-1 for aqueous extract. The result of this study showed that M. oleifera is a potential source of antimicrobial agent against some pathogenic bacteria implicated in beef offal’s spoilage. The study recommends further research to be carried out on other extractive techniques since different extractive techniques may correspond to different antimicrobial effectiveness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soils Using Surfactants and Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria

C. A. Etok, O. D. Akan, A. A. Adegoke

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/6196

A study of the rate of crude oil remediation in soils with the application of surfactants and hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial population was undertaken. Locally sourced particulate surfactants (wood and palm bunch ashes) were compared with synthetic surfactant, Tween 80, and found to be more microbial friendly and efficient in contaminant removal from the soil. The microbial count recorded in biostimulated set up ranged from 2.08 x104 to 1.43 x107 cfu/g for wood ash; 2.08 x104 to 2.22 x107 cfu/g for palm fruit bunch ash while Tween 80 had a range of 2.08 x104 to 3.38 x107 cfu/g. The bioaugmented set up had microbial counts of 8.00 x103 to 2.50 x108 cfu/g with wood ash treatment; 9.90 x103 to 2.50 x108 cfu/g for palm fruit bunch ash treatment while Tween 80 recorded 1.00 x103 to 2.50 x108. The highest reduction of 94.54% was observed in bioaugmented soil treated with palm fruit bunch ash. While the control sample with indigenous population and no surfactant treatment had 36.32% reduction. Biosurfactant aided the utilization of the crude oil by hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria in the soil. Therefore, stakeholders in the oil and gas/petroleum energy sector should encourage the development of cheaper, safe and readily sourced remedial agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Endomycorrhizae and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans with Sulfur and PhosphorusImpact of Endomycorrhizae and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans with Sulfur and P Nutrition on Onion (Allium cepa L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) Plants under Field Conditions

Wedad E. E. Eweda, Enas A. Hassan, A. M. Heggo, Amal A. Mohamed

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15966

Aim: To evaluate the effects of endomycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and sulfur oxidizing bacteria as biofertilizers in presence of phosphors and sulfur as mineral nutrients on onion (Allium cepa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants under field conitions.
Study Design: Identification of the used bacterial isolate and applied with endomycorrhizae individually or mixed culture as bioinoculum for onion and maize plants grown in sandy soil under field conditions.
Methodology: sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene was applied to identify the bacterial isolate. Two field experiments were carried out in sandy soil to study the effect of AMF and the sulfur oxidizing bacterium individually or combination with the recommended dose of N, K and P (as rock phosphate or super phosphate) with or without sulphur element, on some growth parameters, nutrients content and yield parameter of maize and onion crops .
Results: Results indicated that the bacterial isolate A1 was identified as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans based upon the 99% of sequence similarity of 16S rRNA gene with the reference strain. Field experiments revealed that after 60 and 90 days, inoculation of onion plants with dual inoculation induced significant response in nutrient content, but this response was found after 90 days in case of maize plant. The maximum data of the sulphur oxidizing bacterial count, dehydrogenase activity and CO2 evolution in the rhizosphere were obtained after 60 days of cultivation for onion and after 90 days with maize plants. Inoculation with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans A1+ AMF in amended soil with NK + S + R.P gave the best results in N, P and K content of onion crop, bulbs weight and pyruvic acid content. For maize plant, data indicated that added recommended dose of nitrogen, potassium, sulphur and rock phosphate (NK+S+R.P) with AMF + Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans A1 inoculant led to highest significant increases of nitrogen , phosphours and potassium contents compared to other treatments. Also, there were high significant increases in dry weight of 100 seeds, ear weight and its nutrients content with the abovementioned treatment.
Conclusion: The dual application of a mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans A1 seems to have the most pronounced effect on quality and quantity of onion bulbs and yield of maize plants with the recommended dose of sulphur and rock phosphate fertilizers in sandy soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbacterium lacticum; a Lysine Producing Bacterium Isolated from Oil-contaminated Soil in South-East Nigeria

C. C. Ezemba, C. C. Ekwealor, I. A. Ekwealor, C. A. Ozokpo, C. E. Chukwujekwu, V. N. Anakwenze, E. J. Archibong, G. C. Anaukwu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15168

Aims: To screen for lysine production using hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated soil.
Study Design: Study of the isolation and fermentation process in shake flask culture.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University. Awka, Nigeria between 2009 to 2010.
Methodology: Collection of Samples: Enrichment of hydrocarbon- degrading bacteria was done in the basal medium. The carbon source consisted of 0.5 ml of the hydrocarbons added to a sterile filter paper secured in the lids of the Petri dishes. The isolates were screened for lysine production.
Results: Sixteen of the one hundred and forty isolates were found to produce lysine on solid agar medium. The strains were tested for lysine production in their broth after 3 days at 30°C. Among the different hydrocarbons tested groundnut oil and motor oil were found to be suitable. Active strain designated G1, which produced the highest lysine yield of 1.44 mg/ml under submerged condition was characterized. The gram-positive, irregular, slender rod, utilizing citrate, urease, tyrosine and reduces nitrate was identified as Microbacterium lacticum. 
Conclusion: We have isolated many strains of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms, in order to examine if the reasonable amounts of lysine of economic value can be produced by those microorganisms from hydrocarbons such as kerosene, gasoline, motor oil, spent oil, crude oil, which are considered to be more economical and readily available carbon sources than carbohydrates. Lysine producing bacteria can be isolated from Nigeria soil and improving cultural conditions of hydrocarbon utilizers in submerged medium accumulated lysine.