Open Access Original Research Article

Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) and Lipase Activity by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans

O. L. Okwute, E. Stephen, P. I. Anyanwu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/18601

Aims: To evaluate the biodegradation of palm oil mill effluent and lipase activity by Pseudomonas aeruginosaBacillus subtilis and Candida albicans treatment.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Abuja, Abuja and  Microbiology laboratory of the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Research Development (NIPRD), Idu, FCT-Abuja, Nigeria, between July 2014 and September 2014.

Methodology: Some physicochemical properties of the POME were analysed. Samples of POME were inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosaBacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. Microbial growth was measured by determining the total viable counts in a medium containing POME. The isolates were screened for lipase activity and degradation products were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis.

Results: The highest lipase activity was recorded on the 8th day by C. albicans as (29.83±1.40 U/ml) followed by P. aeruginosa (29.02±1.02 U/ml) while the least lipase activity was produced by B. subtilis (19.08±0.40 U/ml). The total viable counts of the microbial isolates during biodegradation of POME revealed that the highest colony counts of P. aeruginosa (8.30×109 cfu/ml ) and B. subtilis (7.30×109 cfu/ml) occurred on the 12th day while the highest colony count of C. albicans was observed on the 16th day (6.35×109 cfu/ml). The degradative enzyme (lipase) produced by the microbial isolates was capable of breaking down complex substrates in nature, and thus may be responsible for the biodegradation of POME polluted habitats. However, the GC-MS showed that oleic acid (omega-9 fatty acid), hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid) and octadecanoic acid (stearic acid) which were the main compounds present in the POME were not degraded by the three organisms at the end of the growth period.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. aeruginosaB. subtilis and C. albicans are good degraders of palm oil mill effluent and the enzyme (lipase) produced was capable of catalysing the breakdown of complex substrates in POME.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Quality and Characterization of Potential Pathogens Associated with Selected Brands of Commercial Cosmetic Products in Nigeria

Michael Oluyemi Babalola, Mary Eze

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/14083

Aims: Seemingly innocuous commercial cosmetic products have been responsible for serious overt and covert skin infections, which were often ignored as the sources or vehicles of transmission of pathogens.

Materials and Methods: Three (3) popular brands of  commercial cosmetic products, consisting of fifteen (15) units each, of Hair straighteners, “Lip Gloss” and baby lotions, were randomly purchased from retail stores in Southwest Nigeria, and the microbiological qualities were evaluated, using the Aerobic plate count technique.                                                                                   

Results: From the forty five (45) samples analyzed, thirty-eight (84%) were contaminated, from which a total number of seventy (70) microbial isolates belonging to eleven (11) bacteria genera (comprising 7 Gram positive rods, 27 Gram negative rods and 10 Gram positive cocci) and nine (9) fungal genera, were isolated.  Of the bacteria isolates, 50% of the Gram negatives and 52.9% of the Gram positives were multidrug resistant. The bacteria and fungal diversity in the baby lotion exceeded the hair relaxer and the Lip gloss, respectively.                                   

Conclusion: The isolation of Buttiauxella agrestis, which had not been previously reported, in addition to Enterobacter gergoviaePseudomonas aeruginosaStaphylococcus aureusAspergillus flavus, Penicilliumspp and Candida albicans (designated as objectionable microorganisms in cosmetics) indicated failures in the statutory microbiological standards. As such the products could serve as vehicles for transmission of these pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Smokeless Tobacco – Ammunition against Dental Caries? A Microbial Study

Priya S. Joshi, Madhuri Chougule, Shirish G. Joshi Reader, Bhagyalaxmi P. Hongal, Rucha S. Kore

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/18568

Aims: The tobacco plant, Nicotiana tabacum, has been one of the major risk factors for oral cancer. However, the literature has endowed it as “holy herb” since the pre-Columbian era as being used for treating pain, poisonous bites, ulcers, nasal polyp. So we designed a study to elicit the anti-microbial property if any, in smokeless tobacco against Streptococcus mutans and also to study the relationship of growth inhibition efficacy of three forms of smokeless tobacco, namely, raw tobacco leaves, mishri and khaini.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional, observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Vasantdada Patil Dental College and Hospital, Kavalapur, Sangli, Maharashtra, India, between December 2014 to February 2015.

Methodology: Twenty two ml of un-stimulated whole saliva was collected from each of five healthy subjects, with no habit of tobacco consumption in any form, zero DMFT index. The samples were collected in the morning, half an hour after tooth brushing and were stored at 4°C prior to processing. Extracts from three forms of smokeless tobacco namely raw tobacco leaves, mishri and khaini were evaluated. The tobacco extracts were prepared using saliva and ringer lactate which was previously sterilized. The antibacterial effect of tobacco extracts was evaluated by well-diffusion method using Brain Heart Infusion agar plates. The bacterial growth inhibition zones were measured after 24 hours incubation at 37°C. Ciprofloxacin was used as a positive control.

Results: All extracts exhibited an inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans, except  mishri extract. The mean diameter of bacterial growth inhibition zones for khaini extracts against S. mutans was higher than those of raw tobacco leaf and mishri extracts. The differences in the inhibition zones were however not statistically significant (One way Anova, p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Amongst the three forms of tobacco extracts analyzed, khaini had the highest anti-microbial property against the growth of S. mutans as compared to raw tobacco leaves and mishri.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sero-Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus (IgM) Antibodies among Pregnant Women Attending Ante-natal Clinic at the General Hospital Kafanchan, Kaduna State Nigeria

S. Edward Deborah, U. Edward Isaac, O. Nwankiti, B. Shallangwa Ishaku, M. Abdullahi Musa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/16863

Cytomegalovirus has been implicated as one of the causes of congenital defects in babies of infected mothers. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus IgM antibodies among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the General hospital Kafanchan Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 190 serum samples were collected and analyzed using Human Cytomegalous Virus Enzymes ImmunoAssay kits. The study revealed that 20 out of the 190 samples were positive for Human Cytomegalous Virus IgM antibodies giving an overall prevalence of 10.5%. The prevalence was found to be higher (50%) in age group 41-45 and lowest (9.2%) in age group 26-30 (χ2 =17.309, P = 0.004). Though not statistically significant the prevalence was higher in multigravid (11.5%) and lower in primigravid (8.3%). More so, women in their third trimester recorded the highest prevalence (12.5%). The high prevalence of Cytomegalovirus antibodies recorded in this study suggests that it could be endemic in the area. There is therefore the need for routine screening of pregnant women and women of child bearing age for cytomegalovirus antibodies. Increased awareness to reduce infection and transmission is also recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Astaxanthin Production from Yeast Rhodosporidium sp.

Khanh-Trang Le Vu, Hong-Trieu Vo Thi, Dai-Nghiep Ngo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/19368

Aims: Astaxanthin, especially natural astaxanthin, is a powerful antioxidant, which is used as a nutraceutical and a common coloring agent in aquaculture. The present study was carried out to investigate the ability of astaxanthin production from the red yeast Rhodosporidium sp.

Study Design: Rhodosporidium sp. was cultured in medium containing different carbon sources then extracted by various methods. The astaxanthin content (mg/g) was calculated following Kelly-Harmon [1].

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Bio-activate compound, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Science, Vietnam National University – Ho Chi Minh City.

Methodology: The result of the wavelength scanning method and Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) showed that Rhodosporidium sp. had the ability of astaxanthin accumulation.

Results: Chemical extraction with Dimethyl sulfoxide plus acetone was a possible and economical method to isolate astaxanthin comparing to other methods. To reduce astaxanthin production cost, molasses was found to be the best choice, which supported the highest astaxanthin yield (2.542 g/l).

Conclusion: Rhodosporidium sp. had the promising capability of astaxanthin production, which deserves further research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Antenatal Patients at University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Nigeria

Habiba Ibrahim Abdullahi, Richard A. Offiong, Teddy E. Agida, Yunusa Thairu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/18857

Introduction: Urinary tract infections pathogens are common among pregnant women but the detection and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy will prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences in pregnancy. Therefore, this research set out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and its socio-demographic characteristics amongst pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja.

Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. One hundred and twenty-five consecutive asymptomatic pregnant women who attend antenatal clinic were recruited and were well informed to collect clean catch midstream urine aseptically.

Results: Urine samples of 125 asymptomatic pregnant women were examined and screened for bacteria pathogens, 16 had positive urine cultures giving asymptomatic bacteriuria prevalence rate of 12.8%. Positive urine cultures were more common in women of low parity (81.5%) and those in the age group 30-34 years (50.0%). It was also most common in the second trimester of pregnancy (81.3%) and among women with tertiary education (68.8%). The bacteria isolated were sensitive to nitrofurantoin in 87.5% of cases and to amoxyclav in 6.3% of cases.

Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in our centre is relatively high. Laboratory investigations still remain relevant in corroborating the clinical entity despite no symptoms.