Open Access Short communication

Antibacterial Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaves and Fruits

Mahendran Sekar, Hazlin Nadira Mohd Hashim, Fatin Shahirah Ahmad Fadzil, Syafina Syafawati Mohamed Sukaini, Nurul Noorain Mohamad Zukhi, Muhammad Nafiz Nadzri, Mohd Syafiq Abdullah

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/19142

Hibiscus sabdariffa (Indian elder, family: Malvaceae) is a species of hibiscus, found naturally in Malaysia, India, Africa and Australia. It is cultivated wild areas on village outskirts and wasteland in Malaysia, Perak State. The parts of the plant are used for diuretic, mild laxative, cholerectic, hypotensive, lowering blood pressure and treatment for cardiac and nerve diseases and cancer. So far no phytochemical and biological investigation has been carried out on this endangered and rare species, though several ethnomedical uses of the plant exist. The present study aimed to carry out antibacterial properties of the methanolic extract of H. sabdariffa leaves and fruits. The crude methanolic extract of H. sabdariffa leaves and fruits showed better antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria compared to Gram positive bacteria. However, the standards showed better activity with lower concentration when compared to both the extracts against the entire organism.


Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Hamamelitannin against Biofilm Production by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci Isolated from Blood of Patients at Intensive Care Units

Rasha H. Bassyouni, Reham Ali Dwedar, Mohamed Gamal Farahat, Zeinat Kamel, Mohamed AbdElsalam Elwekel

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/15477

S. aureus and S. epidermidis are common pathogens in biofilm related infections of indwelling medical devices.

Aim:  The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of vancomycin and clindamycin alone and in-combination with hamamelitannin as a quorum sensing inhibitor in preventing biofilm formation by S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

Methods: The frequency of biofilm formation and its strength of 21 S. aureus and 26 S. epidermidis isolated by blood culture from patients admitted to intensive care units of Fayoum and Cairo University Hospitals was assessed by modified microtitre plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of vancomycin and clindamycin against 22 strains (11 Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 11 Methicillin-Resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) were assessed by micro-dilution method in concentrations ranging from 0.25 µg/ml to 512 µg/ml. The ability of vancomycin and clindamycin alone and in combination with hamamelitannin as a quorum sensing inhibitor to prevent biofilm formation was detected. The presence of icaA and icaD genes was determined by polymerase chain reaction.

Results: 63.8% were strong biofilm producers, 25.5% were moderate and 10.6% were non biofilm producers. The MIC50 and MIC90 of vancomycin were 2 µg/ml and 4 µg/ml respectively against planktonic and sessile cells while those of clindamycin were 0.5 µg/ml and 8 µg/ml respectively against planktonic cells and 4 µg/ml and 32 µg/ml respectively against sessile cells. Hamamelitannin when combined with vancomycin and clindamycin in a concentration of 20 µg/ml succeeded to inhibit biofilm formation in all tested concentrations of both antibiotics.

Conclusion: Hamamelitannin could play a promising role in preventing biofilm formation in association with antibiotics. Lining of indwelling medical devices with a quorum sensing inhibitor may be a new prospect which requires future assessment.


Open Access Original Research Article

Biopotential of Some Trichoderma spp. against Growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum Causal Agent of Cotton Wilt

Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire, Bolou-Bi Bolou Antoine, Soko Dago Faustin, Coulibaly Souleymane, Kouakou Kouakou Laurent, Koné Tchoa, Koné Daouda

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/20518

Evaluation of the antagonistic activity of some Trichoderma species by direct confrontation method was used in this study. The mycoparasitism inhibitory effects of Trichoderma species on the growth of the causal agent of cotton Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) were investigated by dual culture under in vitro condition. Seventeen isolates of Trichoderma and one strain of Fusarium oxysporumf. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) were used. These different isolates of Trichoderma were in vitro confronted to FOV. The invasion ability of antagonist colonies was measured during 14 days. Thus, at the end of these control trials, isolates of Trichoderma have controlled the growth of FOV. Indeed, FOV is confined to a small area and is unable to extend its growth after the third day of incubation in the culture room at 30°C. Beyond this period and after then days, they never sporulated, revealing the inhibitory action of Trichoderma against FOV. Consequently, the Trichoderma isolates were found able to biologically control of FOV growth. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Occurrence of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes among Population in Provisional Capital and Federal Capital of Pakistan

Javed Iqbal, Abida Raza, Ismail Din, Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/19015

Aim: This study was aimed to figure out the prevalence of HBV genotypes among population in Pakistan. The areas which were not explored previously were studied in this research with special emphasis on finding out the new strains and sub genotypes of HBV. The genotypes were further confirmed by DNA sequencing. This study will help future researcher to study some other aspects of HBV related strains in Pakistan and also about its medical therapies.

Study Design: The Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA positive samples were collected in the first step and sent to Nuclear Medicine Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute [NORI], for further analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) lab, Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute [NORI], Islamabad, between September 2012 to February 2014.

Methodology: A total of 450 Hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg and HBV DNA positive samples including 100 from southern Punjab, 150 from Khyber pakhtoonkhwa (KPK), 100 from Islamabad and 100 from Quetta region were collected during the period of September 2012 to February 2014 and genotyped by type specific nested PCR primer pair method for 8 HBV genotypes from A through H. From the total 450 HBsAg positive samples, 41 were excluded from the study as they were either found to be negative for HBV DNA on or they had less than 100 IU/ml of viral load. So, out of the total 409 selected samples, 283 were of male gender and 126 of female with mean age of 35 years, ranging from 12 to 65 years. The patients were randomly selected irrespective of their age and gender and a written consent (parental consent in case of less than 18 years of age) was obtained. The study was approved by ethical review committee.

Results: Our results showed Genotype D as the most prevalent and dominant genotype in all regions studied. Mix HBV genotype infections of genotype A with B & C, D with B and C constitute about 17 percent of all the samples. A mixture of genotype A+D was detected from the majority of the samples among mixed genotype group (62/69) which was followed by C+D (3/69). Genotype B and C are not common to be detected and were also found in smaller proportions. Positive PCR results were repeated twice for confirmation.

Conclusion: Genotype D was identified and come out to be the most dominant genotype in Pakistani community showing sub-genotypes of D1 & D3 which is about 70.0% of the total sample size in our study. Genotype A and D are present as co-infection with each other and contributed as the second prevailing genotypic group.


Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Mass Praziquantel Administration for Controlling Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Schoolchildren from Bamako, Mali

A. Dabo, M. Diallo, A. Z. Diarra, S. Sidibé, S. Togola, O. Doumbo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/19119

Background: Uro-genital schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. For the control of the disease, the frequent and periodic use of mass praziquantel administration (MPA) is recommended. However, despite of several preventive chemotherapy campaigns implemented in Mali since 2005, schistosomiasis rests endemic in the district of Bamako. This study aimed to assess the impact of MPA on S. haematobium prevalence and intensity in schoolchildren from Bamako between 2011 and 2014.

Materials and Methods: From February to March 2014, a cross-sectional survey has been conducted in twenty-nine schools throughout the six municipalities (MI-VI) of Bamako. Urine samples (10 mL) were collected from 10 h to 14 h p.m. and examined for S. haematobium ova using the filtration technique.

Results: Of the 672 schoolchildren aged 8 to 15 years old, 349 (51.9%) were males and 323 (48.1%) were females. The prevalence of the infection was 16.2% (109/672) (CI95%; 16,1-16,3). The geometric mean egg count (GMEC) was 0.1639. Notwithstanding MPA strategy implementation, the infection rates were comparable (p=0.46), despite of the globally increase of infection ranged from 14.7% in 2011 to 16.2% in 2014. At the same period, now the prevalence significantly decreased in M-II (p=0.018), now it increased in M-V (p=0.0039). The intensity of infection was uniform across the age groups, sex, the various municipalities and the Niger River banks (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Our findings show a mitigated overcome of the MPA strategy on S. haematobium prevalence in the urban area of Bamako. So, persistent prevalence of infection suggest that besides periodic drug distribution, introduction of proper sanitation is imperative among the communities especially around the Niger River banks and its tributaries in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis in this area. 


Open Access Review Article

Acinetobacter: A War Zone in the Hospital

Ashwin Rammohan, Sathya Cherukuri, Jeswanth Sathyanesan, Ravichandran Palaniappan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/20193

Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a significant hospital pathogen because of the increasing number of infections and the global spread of strains with resistance to multiple antibiotic classes. An important contribution to the epidemiology of infections with A. baumannii has been the return of military personnel who have fought in Iraq or Afghanistan. In spite of its clinical relevance, until recently, there has been limited scientific data regarding the microbiological and pharmacological aspects of this organism. The availability of complete genome sequences, molecular tools for manipulating the bacterial genome, and animal models of infection facilitated the identification of factors that play a role in A. baumannii persistence and infection. This review summarizes the currently available data on the microbiology of A. baumanni and its clinical and pharmacotherapeutic implications on healthcare.