Open Access Short Research Article

Maternal Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Serologic Markers among Attendees of a Secondary Health Facility in Maiduguri, Nigeria

S. O. Oyinloye, M. Osunkwo, B. Taki-Mohd, B. B. Ajayi, M. A. Lawan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/18201

The profile of four hepatitis B virus markers [Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) class against the hepatitis B core antigen (IgM anti-HBc), Hepatitis B surface antibody (Anti-HBs) and Hepatitis B envelop antigen (HBeAg)] among pregnant women (n=91), with mean age of 25.96 years, were determined using Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. A significant (p=0.00001) overall sero-prevalence of 8.79%, 36.26%, 6.59% and 7.65% were observed for HBsAg, Anti-HBs, IgM anti-HBc and HBeAg respectively. Forty seven point three percent were susceptible (HBsAg -Ve, IgM anti-HBc -ve and anti-HBs-ve) to hepatitis B virus infection. One of thirteen pregnant women tested positive for HBsAg and HBeAg; this portends high risk of transmission to the fetus. This result portrays the unreliability of using presence of HBsAg as the sole marker for hepatitis B virus infection, high susceptibility to hepatitis B virus infection and the risk of transmission of HBV to fetuses.


Open Access Short Research Article

"In vitro" Evaluation of Some Properties in Spore Former Bacteria Isolated from Calves Faeces

Natalia Cecilia Maldonado, Clara Silva de Ruiz, María Elena Fátima Nader-Macías

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/21943

Aims: To isolate and evaluate spore-former bacteria for being used as probiotic additives in animal nutrition by their technological features.

Study Design: The study was experimental, by using calves’ faeces for spore-forming identification and further evaluation of their “in vitro” probiotic-related properties.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Preventive Microbiology, Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos (CERELA-CONICET), between June 2013 and November 2013.

Methodology: In this work, some Bacillus strains were isolated from calves’ faeces and evaluated for their “in vitro” beneficial characteristics: Surface properties, biosurfactant and emulsification production, and inhibition of pathogens. The antibiotic sensibility was also assayed.

Results: Two Bacillus strains were selected, identified by phenotypic and molecular techniques as Bacillus subtilis strains M14 and M12. Spores resulted to be more hydrophobic than vegetative cells. The M14 strain showed biosurfactant and emulsifying properties. Inhibition assays against pathogenic bacteria indicated they inhibit gram-positive microorganisms. The antibiotic susceptibility showed that the two strains were sensitive to the antibiotics assayed, except Bacillus M12 that was resistant to Kanamycin.

Conclusion: The results indicate these strains can be further studied for their inclusion in the design of a probiotic product for newborn calves.

Open Access Short communication

Continued Circulation of DENV-2 (Genotype IV) in Delhi, India

Pankaj Sharma, Veena Mittal, Mala Chhabra, Priyanka Singh, Dipesh Bhattacharya, Srinivas Venkatesh, Arvind Rai

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/21728

Background: Dengue is one of the rapidly emerging arboviral infection in many parts of the world including India. The metropolitan city, Delhi is one of the worst affected areas by dengue. In the last two decades, it has witnessed frequent outbreaks with the continuous changing trend of circulating serotype(s)/genotype(s). The genetic characterization of circulating serotype(s)/genotype(s) is essential to establish the molecular epidemiology of the virus.

Aims: The present study was undertaken to elucidate the molecular epidemiology of dengue virus (DENV), circulated during the post-monsoon period of 2014.

Study Design: Total 112, dengue suspected samples were included in the study. Samples, positive in the NS1 antigen detection assay were processed for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial nucleotide sequencing for capsid-premembrane (CprM) gene region.  

Results: Serotypic and genotypic analysis revealed cases of DENV-2 (genotype IV) 58.33%, DENV-3 (genotype III) 33.33% and DENV-1 (genotype III) 8.33%. Presence of DENV-2 (genotype IV) in majority of the cases (58.33%) indicated its pre-dominance. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a new strain of DENV-2 (genotype IV); differentiated from pre-existing strain by the substitutions; Ala102Val in capsid and Ile49Val in premembrane protein.

Conclusion: This study reports, continued circulation of DENV-2 (genotype IV) in 2014. The results also indicated circulation of a new strain of DENV-2, similar to Hyderabad isolate “1392” (JX475906), along with the pre-existing strain. It is proposed that, this strain has been introduced recently and circulating at low key in the capital.

Open Access Original Research Article

Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Wound Swabs of Patients Attending a Public Hospital in Warri Delta State, Nigeria

O. E. Agbagwa, O. R. Edje

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/20167

Aim: This study was carried out to isolate, identify and determining the prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from wound swabs of patients attending a public hospital in Warri, Delta state.

Study Design: An experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: The initial aspect of the work was carried out in public hospital Warri while the second phase was carried out in the medical microbiology laboratory of the University of Port Harcourt.

Methodology: A total of one hundred (100) wound swab samples were collected from patients in four (4) wards in a public hospital in Warri Delta state Nigeria. Samples were collected from male medical ward (MMW), male surgical ward (MSW), female medical ward (FMW) and female surgical ward (FSW). Sixty-eight (68) samples were from males and thirty-two (32) from females. The samples were evaluated using Mannitol salt agar and Oxoid BrillianceTM MRSA agar. The isolates were identified using morphology, colour indication, Gram reaction and biochemical tests. Antibiotic sensitivity was carried out using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. 

Results: The study showed that 52 samples had significant growth of Staphylococcus aureus while 48 had no significant growth of the same bacteria. Nineteen (19) out of the fifty-two were confirmed to be MRSA. Erythromycin was found to be the most sensitive drug after the antibiotics sensitivity test while cloxacillin and cefuroxime showed the highest resistance using Kirby Bauer' disc diffusion technique. This study showed that the prevalence of MRSA in the public hospital studied is 19%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Fungal Propagules in Some Selected Banking Halls of the University of Cape Coast Community, Ghana

Eugene Asem, Sabuli Noah, Hubert Nyarko

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/18231

The objective of this project work was to determine the level of fungal propagule contamination and identify specific species of the fungal propagule in some Banking Halls on the University of Cape Coast campus and its environs. Samples were collected in petri dishes containing Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), exposed to the top, middle and bottom parts of the banking halls. The results showed that in all the banks, the bottom part was the most contaminated, followed by the middle and the top being the least contaminated. Banks A, B, C and D recorded fungal loads of 11 cfu/ml, 67 cfu/ml, 58 cfu/ml and 75 cfu/ml respectively, which were in accordance to the sizes of the Banks. In all, six different fungal species were identified with varied percentage frequency of occurrence, which included: Aspergillus niger (30.81%), Aspergillus fumigatus (27.96%), Aspergillus flavus (23.70%), Fusarium chlamydosporum (8.06%), Rhizopus stolonifer (5.21%) and Penicillium spp. (4.27%). Aspergillus flavusAspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus niger were present in all the four Banks; Rhizopus stolonifer was present in Banks A, B and D; Fusarium chlamydosporum was also present in Banks B, C and D and Penicillium spp. was present in only Banks C and D. Preliminary study showed that out-door fungal concentration was high than all indoor values recorded and this was due to the exo-genal fungal out-door. P-value data was analyzed descriptively using graphic pad prism (version 5), one-way analysis of variance was used to determine significance where (p≤0.05) is significant whilst (p≥0.05) is not significant. Only in bank D was there a significant p-value recorded for Fusarium chlamydosporum (p≤0.001). The research concluded that, there was fungal propagule in the Banking Halls, which poses health problems to their workers and patrons over a period of time.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Evaluation of Calotropis procera (“SODOM APPLE”) against Human Pathogens

Asoso, Oluwakemi Oyesola, Akharaiyi, Fred Coolborn, Oladunmoye, Muftau Kolawole, Makinwa, Bisola

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/16372

Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial and phytochemical effects of acetone, ethanol, methanol and    aqueous leaf extracts of Calotropis procera on human pathogens.

Study Design: Five pathogenic and two fungi species were obtained from the Department of Biological Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti and were evaluated in in vitro antibacterial testing.

Methodology: We studied the in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity of C. procera by well in agar diffusion method. Also studied was the extract durability to ascertain expiration after preparation and the phytochemical constituents of the extracts by chemical methods. 

Results: The results revealed that acetone extract exhibited the highest antimicrobial properties on the test organisms followed by methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts in that order. However, Morganella morgani was the most inhibited by the solvent extracts with zone of inhibition 45, 56, 59 and 43 mm by acetone, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetone extract on bacteria species was between 25.0 and 100 mg/ml and between 25 and 50 mg/ml on the fungal species. Minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations (MBC/MFC) of the extracts were valued at concentrations ranged from 50-100 mg/ml on the selected microorganisms. The durability study of the leaf extracts in consistent sensitivity pattern was potentially effective for 57-66 days. Phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract showed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, tarpenoids, flavonoids, phenolics and carotenoids. The results provide a partial support for the use of C. procera in traditional medicine.