Open Access Short Research Article

Assessment of Hygienic Effects of Laundering Using Spectrophotometry

Syguła- Cholewińska Justyna, Jekiel Katarzyna, Szostak- Kot Jadwiga

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/20584

Microbial cleanliness of textiles is an important issue in numerous industry sectors where microorganisms may contaminate manufactured goods and constitute a threat for consumers’ health. The most common method of removing contaminants like microbes is laundering. Changes in the manner of laundering, which have taken place in the recent years due to ecological reasons, lead to decreased hygienic effects. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to determine the viability of bacteria in textiles following laundering with the use of the spectrophotometric technique. The tests were conducted on cotton textiles contaminated with bacteria and laundered. The concentration of bacteria was determined by spectrophotometry with the use of AlamarBlueTM dye. The quantitative analyses confirmed the possibility of using spectrophotometric measurements in determining the levels of the tested bacterial species in the extracts from the laundered textiles. It was demonstrated that laundering textiles contaminated with bacteria result in a decrease in their count irrespective of the species.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Preliminary Study on Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Benishangul Gumuz Region, Western Ethiopia

Haimanot Disassa, Ketema Tafess, Adane Worku, Gobena Ameni

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/20032

Background: The information about the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in certain geographic area is needed for a better understanding of epidemiology of tuberculosis and could have implications for development of new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary information on the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in Benishangul Gumuz Region.

Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted to generate preliminary information on the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis between November 2012 and April, 2013. Mycobacterium tuberculosisisolates were characterized using region of difference 9 (RD9) and spoligotyping. The patterns of strains identified by spoligotyping were compared with the patterns registered in the SpoIDB4 database of the Pasteur Institute.

Results: Out of a total of 53 smear positive samples, 34 (64.15%) were culture positive, of which, 33 samples were confirmed to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis by RD9 deletion typing. Further characterization of 33 isolates using spoligotyping lead to the identification of 24 individual spoligotype patterns, among which, 18 were unique while the remaining six were found in clusters containing two to four isolates. Of the 24 patterns identified by the present study, only six patterns were registered in SpolDB4 international database, while 18 patterns were not previously registered in the database. Grouping of the 33 isolates into the lineages showed that 19 (57.6%) isolates were members of Euro-American, 6 (18.2%) isolates were Indo-Oceanic while the remaining 8 (24.2%) could not be categorized to the presently known lineages.

Conclusion: Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains revealed the identification of new strains and lineages which could not match with the existing strains and lineages suggesting the localization of these strains and lineages in this Region. Hence, further research is required to identify and document the strains and lineages circulating in the Region.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Bacterial Isolates in Adult Intensive Care Unit at Nizwa Hospital, Oman

Nashwa M. Al-Kasaby, Vibha Sachdeva

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/20821

Background and Objectives: Infection is a commonly encountered problem for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) and Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection is predominant. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency of different bacterial isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern from patients admitted to adult ICU in a 5 year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at Nizwa hospital, Oman.

Materials and Methods: Different microbiological samples were collected and analyzed by routine conventional methods at microbiology section, laboratory department; Nizwa hospital.  Antibiotic susceptibility (ABS) test was done using modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.

Results: Total (3930) clinical samples were processed, out of which 12.8% (504/3930) showed evidence of infection, 73.6% (371/504) were Gram-negative bacteria, 22.8% (115/504) were Gram-positive and 3.6% (18/504) were Candida species. Respiratory tract infection was the most common site of infection. Among the isolates, the most commonly found microorganism was Pseudomonas aeruginosa in respiratory samples, pus and wound infection, However Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli were predominant in urinary tract infection. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus was the predominant in blood. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coliKlebsiella spp. and Proteus occurred in 43.2% (29/67), 28.6% (18/63) and 45.5% (5/11) of total Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus isolates. While 16.6% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Conclusion: Adult ICUs are faced with the increasingly rapid emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Excellent antibiotic policy and infection control implementation are important priorities for these critically ill patients.


Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Microbial Resistance of Uropathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Neonatal and Pediatric Patients in Western of Iran

Mansour Mansouri, Davoud Afshar, Mozhgan Hemati-Harsini, Abolfazl Davoodabadi, Abbas Farahani, Amir Hasanzadeh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/20208

Backgrounds: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections disease among children, pediatric and neonatal patients. These infections are found frequently in children. The global evolution of antibiotic resistance among urinary tract isolates has recently been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infections.

Materials and Methods: A total of 1754 urine specimens were obtained from children with UTI who referred to Emam Hossien hospital in Kermanshah city, Iran. The urine samples were cultured on the appropriate bacteriological media and identified by conventional bacteriological tests. Antibiotic succeptibility testing was then performed by disk diffusion method.

Results: Of 1754 samples, 193 (11%) urine samples were positive based on do the urine cultures method. Out of 193 urine specimens, were positive for: E. coli, Kelebsiella spp., Enterococus spp., coagulase-negative staphylocococci, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureusCitrobacter spp., Serratia spp., Streptococcus(viridans group) and Proteus spp. A sample was positive for Acinetobacter spp. Furthermore, E. coliinfections showed high resistance to ampicillin (82%), trimethoperim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid (69%), and nitrofurantoin (61%).

Conclusion: Our results revealed that urinary tract pathogens isolated from Iranian children are particularly resistant to some commonly used antimicrobial agents. Regarding to antimicrobial susptibility pattern in urinary tract pathogens showed that high levels of resistance to different antibiotics and treatment options are limited, and infection control measures remain of high importance.  Routine surveillance and monitoring studies should be performed to provide knowledge to physicians on the updated and most effective empirical prescribing practice in the treatment of UTIs.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fermentation on Proximate Composition and Microbiological Changes of Sorghum and Pumpkin Blend

Anthony O. Ojokoh, Ojokoh Eromosele

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/19260

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fermentation on proximate composition, titratable acidity and microbiological changes of sorghum and pumpkin blend. The raw materials used were sorghum and pumpkin flour blend which had three combinations: SpA = 100:0, SpB = 70:30, SpC = 60:40. 

Methodology: The blends were subjected to natural fermentation for a period of 72 h. The following microorganisms were isolated from the fermentation process; Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus subtilis, Mucor sp., Aspergillus niger. Among the microorganisms isolated, Aspergillus fumigatus and Lactobacillus plantarum were found to be the most dominant organisms during the fermentation process. The pH value decreased while titratable acidity (TTA) increased in total in all of the samples analyzed. Results from the proximate analysis shows that there was a marginal increase in crude protein content for each sample and the increase are as follows: 10.820±0.042 to 14.520±0.042, 19.610±0.014 to 24.010±0.014 and 22.255±0.035 to 27.335±0.021%.

Conclusion: Possible means of getting nutritional benefit components in sorghum is by utilizing fermentation method. Fermentation as investigated in this study revealed that protein and fat content increased, while anti-nutrient content decreased. The content of fat and ash increased while that of carbohydrate and crude fibre decreased after fermentation. There was also a significant decrease in anti-nutritional content of flavonoid, phytate and tannin after 72 h of fermentation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Antioxidant Potential of Leaf and Seed Extracts of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng

S. Jakhar, D. K. Gahlawat, S. Dahiya, U. Swami, M. Verma, P. Dahiya

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/21571

India is known for its rich biodiversity and traditional healers have used flora to cure various human ailments. The same plants are still being used today for the benefit of mankind. Since the beginning of this century, there has been an increasing interest in the study of traditional uses of plants globally as natural products of plant origin is the most important resource for developing new drugs to treat various diseases. In the present study, Murraya koenigii has been evaluated for its antibacterial and antioxidative potential. The selection of the plant was based on the ethnobotanical data available on its traditional use. The extract of leaves and seeds in different solvents viz. acetone, chloroform, ethanol and methanol were examined for their antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The disc diffusion assay and MIC were used to determine antibacterial potential against four bacterial strains namely Klebsiella pneumoniaeStaphylococcus aureusPseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. The different extracts were also assessed for their free radical scavenging activity using DPPH radical assay. Acetone leaf and seed extracts showed maximum activity against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae, respectively. However, methanolic leaf extract exhibited greatest free radical scavenging activity. As the leaf and the seed extracts of Murraya koenigii exhibited significant antibacterial and antioxidative properties, they could be exploited for their therapeutic potential.