Open Access Original Research Article

Polymerase Chain Reaction, Characterization and Antibiogram of Conventional Antibiotics on Escherichia coli 0157:H7 Isolated from Sundried Tomatoes within Kaduna, Nigeria

J. R. Wartu, A. W. Diya, B. Abdullahi, H. S. Dapiya, L. M. Yaki, B. J. Musa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22290

Abstract: Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli 0157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen associated with diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Aim: The aim of this research was to carry out an assessment of the incidence of Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli 0157:H7 in sun dried tomatoes using PCR.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out during dry season, January - April in Kaduna state.

Methodology: A total of 250 samples of sundried tomatoes were collected from open field sun-drying sites and different markets within Kaduna state. E. coli was isolated using most probable number. Colonies showing green metallic sheen were further characterized on cefixime sorbitol macConkey agar at 37oC for 48hours. PCR was used to characterize the shiga-toxin producing bacteria using sets of reported synthetic oligonucleotide probes derived from sequences of the shigatoxin genes: stx1, and stx2.

Results: PCR amplified products identifying the stx1 and stx2 gene sequences were observed in DNA extracted from pale coloured colonies isolated on the cefixime sorbitol macConkey agar. The moisture contents of the sundried tomatoes were variable. The different markets presented moisture content with means; 13.1, 12.9, 12.9, 12.8, 12.7% for Hunkuyi, Samaru-Zaria, Kafanchan, Birnin- Gwari and Kaduna Central market respectively. The total viable bacteria count ranged from 2.3 x 102 – 5.6 x 108 cfu/g. Samples from Hunkuyi drying site presented significantly (P=.05) higher mean total bacterial count of Log108.74±0.33 than Log10 7.43±0.23 from Samaru-Zaria, Kafanchan (Log105.74±0.07), Birnin Gwari (Log105.26±0.05) and central market (Log102.36±0.04). Using disk diffusion method, the Shigatoxin producing E. coli isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, sparflaxacin, amoxicillin and to some few other common conventional antibiotics but they were sensitive to ciproflacxacin. The prevalence of the isolated pathogens was 2.6% and 1.3% for stx1 and stx2 respectively.

Conclusion: This study has shown sun dried tomatoes could be a vehicle for Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli.0157:H7. Therefore, intervention through the good manufacturing practices and establishment of improved sun drying processes is advocated to avoid life-threatening systemic manifestations often associated with human infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

The p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism in Moroccan Women and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer

Mustapha Benhessou, Samira Zoa Assoumou, Luc Magloire Anicet Boumba, Said Bouhya, Mohammed Nabil Benchekroun, My Mustapha Ennaji

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22295

The aim of this study was to examine the association of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism with ovarian carcinoma development in Moroccan women.

Samples from 44 women with ovarian cancer and 80 healthy controls, were used. p53 codon 72 polymorphism determination was performed by allele-specific PCR assay. The distribution of Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro genotypes was 33/44 (75%), 10/44 (22.7%) and 1/44 (2.3%) in the cervical cancer group and 43/80 (53.8%), 27/80 (33.7%) and 10/80 (12.5%) in the control group. No significant association was found between polymorphism of p53 and risk of development of ovarian cancer among Moroccan women. Thus, the polymorphism of p53 codon 72 in exon 4 does not seem to play a role in the development of ovarian cancer among Moroccan women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological and Physico-chemical Analyses of Borehole Water Samples from Private Schools in Umuahia Metropolis, Abia State, Nigeria

C. N. Obi, A. L. Onyegbulam, F. Ejukonemu, M. Ubogu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/20136

The microbiological and physico-chemical analysis of randomly selected borehole waters used by staffs, students and pupils in twenty (20) private schools in Umuahia Abia State were carried out. Five bacteria: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus faecalis were isolated together with two fungal species: Aspergillus niger and Mucor racemosus. The Total Coliform plate count (TCPC) gave a range of 2.40x104-8.61x103 cfu/ml while the Total Heterotrophic plate count (THPC) was in the range of 3.82x104-9.22x103 cfu/ml. The faecal coliform was detected in 40.0% of the water samples. The physico-chemical parameters were within acceptable limit except for nitrate whose range fell between 10-53 mg/l above WHO guidelines of 10 mg/l. The results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO). The antimicrobial susceptibility test of the bacterial isolates showed varied responses. The findings showed that 16 of the borehole water samples from the 20 private schools met with WHO standards for drinking water while the water samples from four schools that did not meet with the WHO standards for drinking water and pose serious health threats to the pupils and teachers who drink the water. Thus, there is need to adopt constant treatment, analysis and servicing of these boreholes water sources for them to be safe for drinking.


Open Access Original Research Article

Retracted: Intra- and Inter-individual Variation in Population of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in Faeces of Some Healthy Individuals

O. S. Fadare, S. Sabri, A. Pachenari, A. O. Momoh, O. A. Makinde

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22517

Aims: To evaluate the variation of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium population within and between healthy individuals.

Methodology: Five healthy participants were recruited, and advised not to consume yoghurt, antibiotics, alcohol and steroid during the study. Three (3) fecal samples from each participant obtained at one week interval (total of 15 samples a week) for three weeks were examined for each subject bacteria. The samples were collected in sterile specimen jars and immediately taken to the laboratory for analysis. MRS and BIM-25, a selective medium were used for the enumeration of Lactobacillus sp and Bifidobacteria respectively using plate count method. Target bacteria were confirmed by PCR technique and biochemical tests.

Results: All isolates picked from their respective selective media were confirmed to be lactobacillus and bifidobacteria. The confirmation was carried out using both biochemical tests and PCR. The results of the statistical analysis of the data obtained using SPSS version 16 showed that intra-individual variation of the population of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria was significantly lower than inter-individual variation at P<0.05.  

Conclusion: This study establishes the fact that the composition level of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteriumvaries within and between healthy human gut at different points in time.


Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal after receipt of written complains. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 20th January-2016. Related policy is available here:

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibition of the Human Hepatitis C Virus by Dibenzyl Trisulfide from Petiveria alliacea L (Guinea Hen Weed)

Henry I. C. Lowe, Ngeh J. Toyang, Sanjit Roy, Charah T. Watson, Joseph L. Bryant

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22120

Aim: The anti cancer and anti diabetic properties of the extract from the P. alliacea a naturally occuring plant found in Jamaica, have been described previously but its role against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is completely unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti HCV activities of the P. alliacea extract and its isolates dibenzyl disulfide (DDS) and dibenzyl trisulfide (DTS).

Methodology: Luciferase and cell cytotoxic activities were measured using the extracts of P. alliacea, DDS and DTS.

Results: The crude extract of P. alliacea and DTS inhibited the HCV expression while DDS was inactive. The EC50 of the crude ethyl acetate fraction was 18.0 µg/ml while DTS was 5.69 µg/ml and the reference compound rIFN a-2b was 0.57 IU.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the extract of P. alliacea is a promising antiviral agent against HCV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the inhibition of HCV expression mediated by P. alliacea and DTS. Further studies are required to determine the mechanism of action of DTS against HCV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Salmonella Strains Isolated from Beef in Namibia

Renatus Shilangale, Godwin Kaaya, Percy Chimwamurombe

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/19775

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella strains isolated from beef in Namibia.

Methodology: To assess the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella, a total of 81 strains isolated from 9508 routine beef samples from January 2008 to December 2009 were used. Isolation of Salmonella was done using a standard isolation procedure where the serotyping was done according to the White Kauffmann Le Minor scheme. Salmonella isolates were from carcass swabs (n = 45), meat juice (n = 19) and meat cuts (n = 17). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the serotyped Salmonella strains was carried out against 16 different antimicrobials using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar.

Results: Twenty one of 81 isolates (25.93%) from beef samples belonging to 15 different Salmonellaserovars showed antimicrobial resistance to one or more of the 16 antimicrobials tested and 13 (16.05%) exhibited resistance to two or more antimicrobials. Two S. Chester isolates and one S. Schwarzengrund isolate exhibited resistance to two or more antimicrobial classes. The resistance was most commonly observed to sulfisoxazole (23.46%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (13.58%), tetracycline (3.7%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (1.23%), cephalothin (1.23%) and chloramphenicol (1.23%). Most of the Salmonella isolates that showed resistance to two or more antimicrobials had a common resistance pattern to both sulfisoxazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

Conclusions: The present study revealed low antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella strains isolated from beef in Namibia. This suggests that there could still be a public health risk if such strains may reach the consumers.