Open Access Opinion Article

Colonization and Putative Virulence Factors of Candida Isolated from the Oral Cavity of Cigarette/ Narghile Smokers and Non-smokers

Maha Samara, Najla Dar-Odeh, Asem A. Shehabi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/24245

Aims: This study aimed to investigate colonization, molecular detection, and virulence characteristics of Candida species isolated from young adults who smoke cigarettes and Narghile.

Methodology: A total of 238 young males and females which were recruited from the Jordan university students over the period 2013-2014. The participants were divided into 3 groups; non-smokers, cigarette smokers and Narghile smokers. Oral swabs were sampled from tong dorsum and jugal mucosa using sterile cotton swabs pre-moistened with 0.9% saline. Samples were cultured for Candida species and their growth and virulence factors were identified using microbiological culture methods, polymerase chain reaction, and random amplified polymorphic DNA.

Results: A total of 30 (12.8%) of Candida species isolates were recovered. C. albicans was the most commonly isolated species. There was no significant difference in the production of proteinase, phospholipase and hemolysin between 17 C. albicans and 7 C. dubliniensis isolates from the 3 participating groups. Three major genotypes profiles among C. albicans were found, and 10/17 (58.8%) of C. albicans isolates belong to the major genotype group A, which showed 4 specific bands with different sizes (2,861, 1,504, 1,284, 815 bp).

Conclusion: This study shows that colonization rate of Candida species in the oral cavity was higher but not statistically significant in smokers than non-smokers. Most C. albicans isolates from smokers and non-smokers produced similar virulence factors and belonged to three major genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Canine Parvovirus in Jos North and South Local Government Areas of Plateau State

K. I. Ogbu, I. C. Chukwudi, O. J. Ijomanta, E. O. Agwu, C. N. Chinonye

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22813

The research was conducted to determine the prevalence of canine parvovirus in dogs in Jos-North and South Local Government Areas of Plateau State. The prevalence in relation to sex, location, vaccination status, age and breed were evaluated. The samples for this research work were collected from veterinary clinics and major dog breeders in the study areas and were analyzed in the college laboratory using immunochromatographic assay technique. A total number of 70 dogs were examined out of which 40 samples were from veterinary clinics (10 samples from each Vet clinic) and the remaining 30 were from major dog breeders. A total of 12(17.14%) were positive for the infection while 58(82.86%) were negative. Based on sex, 5(14.71%) were positive females while 7(19.44%) were positive males. Based on the location, 5(14.29%) positive samples were from Jos-South while 7(20%) were from Jos-North. Based on vaccination status, 2(5.13%) and 10(32.26%) were positive among the vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs respectively. A total of 12(28.56%) samples were positive among the puppies (1-6 months old) while none were positive among the adults. Based on the breed, 11(21.15%) and 1(5.56%) were positive exotic and local breed respectively. The study showed that canine parvovirus occurs in all areas and breeds and it affects mostly puppies, exotic breeds and non-vaccinated dogs. However adult dogs and vaccinated dogs are less susceptible to the virus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Three Different Laboratory Tests in Demonstrating Sensitization to Various Allergens in Common Atopic Disorders

Sarwat Fatima, N. M. Aleemuddin, Fakeha Firdous

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/23105

Aim: To study the role of Serum total IgE, serum allergen-specific IgE and Absolute eosinophil count in demonstrating  sensitization to various allergens in common atopic disorders.

Materials and Methods: A total of sixty one cases with history of atopy in the form of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria/ dermatitis were subjected to allergy profile test during a period of one year from January 2013- January 2014. The allergy profile test included serum total IgE, serum allergen specific IgE and absolute eosinophil count.

Results: In the present study more males (54%) were symptomatic than females (46%). The male to female ratio was 1.17 and overall mean age of atopic patients was 33.73±19.47. The mean age of males in the study was 29.0±20.89 and females 39.32±16.29. Total serum IgE and absolute eosinophil count was raised in 66% and 61% of cases respectively. Serum allergen specific IgE could be performed on 61% of cases and 30% of them were positive. The mean total serum IgE levels correlated well with the clinical symptoms of allergic rhinitis, asthma and dermatitis. Allergen specific IgE results revealed that people were more sensitized to inhalants (54%) than to food items (18%). Around a third of cases (27%) exhibited sensitization to both food and inhalants simultaneously. Moreover, those who were sensitized to inhalants the predominant allergen noted was dust mite (67%) followed by animal and epithelia mix (33%). No such predominance was observed in for food allergens, but subjects showed proportionate amount of sensitization to onion and garlic mix and sea food as 50% each. Further more in AllergodipR test 64% of the subjects showed very high and high grade sensitization of the class 3-4. There was 82% concordance between serum allergen specific IgE results and total serum IgE. Absolute eosinophil count is a more useful predictor of allergic rhinitis than asthma and dermatitis.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that in developing countries with increasing prevalence of atopic disorders, tests like total serum IgE, absolute eosinophil count followed by allergen-specific IgE are helpful in demonstrating sensitization to various allergens  if in vivo and ex vivo tests are not possible for the clinical diagnosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Microbial Contamination of Processed Beef Meat by Using API Strips and Automated Vitek 2 Compact System

Awatif A. Ahmed, Y. A. Sabiel

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/23391

Aims: Food safety is a complex issue, where animal proteins such as meats, meat products, and fish and fishery products are generally regarded as high risk commodity with pathogenic microrganisms. The present study was conducted to evaluate microbial contamination of beef meat products; minced meat, sausage, beef burger and Shawerma in supermarkets and cafeterias in Khartoum towns.

Study Design: Fifteen samples of minced meat, 12 samples of beef burger, 12 samples of sausage and 12 samples of Shawerma were collected randomly at Khartoum State (Khartoum, Omdurman and Bari towns markets) during the period from October 2011-August 2012 and examined for bacterial contamination.

Methodology: Primary culturing of the samples were conducted onto blood agar plates and the purified isolates of the Gram-Negative bacteria  were identified by rapid biochemical tests (Api 20 E, Api 20 NE) while Gram-Positive bacteria were identified by Api Staph and automated system (Vitek 2 compact) according to manufacturer’s instructions. The Bacillus spp. was identified by conventional bacteriological methods.

Results: One hundred and two different bacteria were isolated and identified from 51 beef meat products. The most Gram- Positive isolates were Lactobacillus spp. 11(10.7%), and Kocuria kristinae 9(8.8%) while the most Gram-Negative isolates were Proteus mirabilis 7(6.8%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae 7(6.8%).

Conclusions: This study revealed that microbiological quality of beef meat products is strongly influenced by implementation of hygienic precautions during production and handling. The environment in butcher shops and areas of production can acts as important source of microbial contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bacteriocinogenic Pediococcus pentosaceus IO1 Strain and Its Bacteriocin on Growth Performance and Intestinal Microbiota of Albino Rat

I. A. Adesina, A. O. Ojokoh, D. J. Arotupin

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/24074

Aims: To study the effect of bacteriocinogenic Pediococcus pentosaceus IO1 strain and its bacteriocin on the growth performance and intestinal microbiota composition of male albino rats, using faeces as a surrogate.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria and Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Nigeria between January, 2014 and April, 2014.

Methodology: A total of 16 rats were randomly assigned to four groups (A, B, C, and D) of four rats per group. Group A (control) was placed on the basal diet and orally dosed with 0.5 ml of MRS broth, while group B, C, and D were placed on the basal diet and also orally dosed with 0.5 ml of bacteriocin-containing cell-free culture supernatant (crude bacteriocin), 0.5 ml of 109 cfu/ml of viable bacteriocin producer (P. pentosaceus IO1), 0.5 ml of 109 cfu/ml of bacteriocin-negative producer respectively, for a period of 14 days. The weight of each rat was measured and faecal samples collected, at day 0, 7, and 14 of the experiment, from each rat was serially diluted and pour-plated on selective media for total viable bacteria count, lactic acid bacterial count, and enterobacteria count.

Results: Rat groups fed with P. pentosaceus IO1 strain  and its bacteriocin showed better weight gain and decrease in enterobacteria count in the faeces as compared to control (P<0.05) on day 7 of experiment. Total viable bacteria count in the faeces was not significantly influenced. There was a slight significant increase in lactic acid bacterial count in the faeces of animals belonging to treatment group B, C, and D at day 14.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that consumption of P. pentosaceus IO1 strain and its bacteriocin improve growth performance and modulate intestinal microbiota of the albino rat. Hence, P. pentosaceus IO1 strain may be used as probiotic or protective culture in food industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amylolytic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Wet Milled Cereals, Cassava Flour and Fruits

T. Y. Amapu, J. B. Ameh, S. A. Ado, I. O. Abdullahi, H. S. Dapiya

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/24509

Aims: This research was conducted with the objective to evaluate amylolytic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from wet milled cereals, cassava flour and fruits.

Methodology: Strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from food samples and screened for amylolytic potential using starch hydrolysis technique. The resultant Amylolytic Lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) isolates were then characterized and identified based on their morphological and physiological properties using both conventional methods and API 50CHL kit (Biomerieux, France). These isolates were further evaluated for their amylase yield (U/ml) and amylase activity (mg/ml) using standard procedures.

Results: From this study, characteristics typical of the lactic acid bacteria showed that isolates were Gram positive rods, catalase negative, with growth occurring at 30, 37, 40, 45°C and 3, 6, 10% (w/v)NaCl. On the basis of amylolytic potential, only 14 isolates exhibited amylolytic properties with halo diameter of between 25.00 to 68.00 mm. Comparatively, isolates (AMZ5) obtained from maize flour gave the highest amylase potential. Occurrence of the ALAB species identified showed that; Lactobacillus plantarum 8(57.14%), Leuconostoc mesenteroides 2(14.29%), Lactobacillus fermentum 1(7.14%), Lactobacillus brevis 1(7.14%), Lactococcus lactis 1(7.14%) and Pediococcus acidolactici (7.14%) were predominant. Quantitatively, maximum amylase yield of between 0.38 (U/ml) to 1.10 (U/ml) was observed for the isolates at 24 h of incubation. Amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum (AMZ5) from maize dough flour however, gave the highest amylase concentration (1.10 U/ml). As a criterion of strain selection, hydrolytic action of AMZ5 gave the highest reducing sugar concentration of 0.55 (mg/ml) after 24 hr. Among the isolates, Lactobacillus brevis (ATt) isolated from tomato on the other hand, had lowest reducing sugar concentration (0.30 mg/ml) even after 48 hr of incubation.

Conclusion: Therefore, findings from this study indicate that cereal based products are rich sources of ALAB. Also the strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (AMZ5) isolated from maize flour possesses better starch degradation capability through production high extracellular amylase and reducing sugar yields.