Open Access Original Research Article

Latent Toxoplasmosis is Not a Risk Factor for Pregnancy-induced Hypertension

A. A. El-Henawy, H. A. El-Nahas, Mostafa M. Alkhiary

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/23770

Aims: To compare between Toxoplasma IgG antibody seroprevalence in pregnancy-induced hypertensive females (cases) versus normotensive pregnant females (control), and to identify potential risk factors in Toxoplasma infected patients.

Study Design: A prospective case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Outpatient clinics of Obstetrics & Gynecology Department and Department of Medical Parasitology, faculty of medicine, Mansoura University in the period from January 2013 to February 2014.

Methodology: We included 78 pregnant females (39 hypertensive, and 39 normotensive; age range 18-39 years). Data concerning demographic and reproductive histories were recorded including previous pregnancies outcome and foetal complications. Comprehensive investigations of the current pregnancy including clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound scan were performed. Five ml venous blood was withdrawn from each female, processed and investigated for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies by ELISA.

Results: The overall Toxoplasma seroprevalence was 40/78 (51.3%) among total participants.  Anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 23/39 (57.5%) of pregnancy-induced hypertension patients and in 17/39 (42.5%) normotensive controls (OR=1.85; 95% CI: 0.7-4.6; P=.17). Of the anti- T. gondii IgG positive patients, 19 (82.6%) had high IgG levels. In comparison only 1 (6.2%) of the anti- T. gondii IgG positive controls showed high IgG levels (P<.0001). Regarding the specific characteristics of Toxoplasma positive pregnancy-induced hypertension patients, none of those characters displayed a significant correlation with hypertensive tendency except history of abortion (P=.004).

Conclusion: Chronic toxoplasmosis is not a likely risk factor for pregnancy-induced hypertension although significantly higher titre among hypertensive females necessitates further research.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Mode of Transmission of Banana streak virus by Paracoccus burnerae (Homiptera; Planococcidae) Vector is Non-circulative

S. M. Muturi, F. N. Wachira, L. S. Karanja, L. K. Njeru

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/21574

The causative agent of banana streak disease is Banana streak virus (BSV). In tropical countries, for example Kenya, the virus causes considerable damages to banana crop as well as banana production yields. Several mealy-bug species have been reported as vectors of BSV. However, latent and retention time of the BSV in the oleander mealy-bug (Paracoccus burnerae) are unknown. These characteristics are important in determining the mode of transmission of viruses by their vectors. The purpose of this study was to determine the latent and retention time of the BSV in its vector, P. burnerae. We employed both Immuno-capture Polymerase Chain Reaction (IC-PCR) and Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) techniques to select diseased and healthy plantlets for transmission trials. RCA assays were performed on the deoxyribonucleic acid samples of viruliferous mealy-bug instars of P. burnerae and on the deoxyribonucleic acid of virus-inoculated plantlets. The findings of the study indicated that BSV has no latent period in P. burnerae during transmission at ambient conditions (9-30°C). However, the vector can retain and transmit BSV for a period of four days under ambient temperatures (9-30°). The results revealed that vector P. burnerae, transmit BSV semi-persistently which is an indication of non-circulative mode of transmission of viruses. The results of this study contribute immensely to the elucidation of the mode of transmission of Banana streak virus by P. burnerae, thus enhancing development of novel control strategies of BSV transmission.


Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Molecular Detection of Pathogenic Vibrio Species among Economic Fish from Red Sea in Egypt

Mohamed Wa el Abdel-Azeem, Ahmed Attaya, Manal I. El-Barbary, Serageldeen Sultan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/24016

A total of 105 samples were collected from Siganus rivulatus, Mulloidichthys vanicolensis, and Lethrinus lentjan, freshly captured from the Red Sea along Hurghada City coastline zone, Egypt. Clinical and post mortem findings revealed the presence of characteristic clinical signs and lesions similar to those reported in vibriosis. Out of 43 putative Vibrio species isolates obtained by culturing; 30 isolates were presumptively discriminated into Vibrio cholera (n=11), Vibrio anguillarum (n=8), Vibrio fluvialis/ Vibrio furnissii (n=4), Vibrio harveyi (Vibrio carchariae) (n=4) and Vibrio alginolyticus (n=3), but it was not initially possible to approve or repudiate that the remaining 13 isolates were Vibrio species through phenotypic characterization. By using PCR, targeting Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA gene, the presumptive 30 Vibrio isolates and 9 out of the remaining 13 isolates were confirmed as Vibrio species. The prevalence of Vibrio species was 37.1% among the examined fish species; 47.1%, 34.3% and 30.6% in Mulloidichthys vanicolensis, Lethrinus lentjan and Siganus rivulatus, respectively. The occurrence of Vibrio species pathogenic for aquatic animals and humans was confirmed which possess public health concerns. Also, the utility of molecular technique to improve the identification of phenotypic Vibrio like species is recommended.


Open Access Original Research Article

Tolerance to Heavy Metals by Some Fungal Isolates from Petroleum Refinery Effluent in Kaduna, Nigeria

O. A. Bello, I. O. Abdullahi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22728

Investigation was carried out to assess the potential of some fungal species to tolerate and grow in biomassin vitro in the presence of some heavy metals (HMs) (Pb, Zn, Cr and Cd) from Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) effluent. This was done by subjecting all the fungal isolates through the tolerant test (biomass production). The isolates were inoculated into replicate 100 ml flask containing 50 ml of Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) amended with 5, 10 and 15 ppm of Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cd. Each test isolate was inoculated into replicate flask containing the same medium without the HMs to serve as control. All inoculated flasks were incubated aerobically at room temperature on a rotatory shaker for 7 days. The mycelial mats were harvested by filtering the cultures through preweighed filter paper (No.1). The filters containing the mycelial mats were dried in an oven at 70  for 18 hours. It was observed that most of the isolates tested tolerated and grew in the medium containing 5 to 15 ppm of tested HMs. Yield of dry mycelia mats in the heavy metal supplemented medium were also comparable to those grown in heavy metal free PDA medium. Three fungal species- Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Microsporum nanum isolated from the refinery were found to be most tolerant to varying concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr and Cd). A. niger is most tolerant to 5 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml, and 15 µg/ml concentration of HMs followed by M. nanum, A. flavus and Penicillium marneffei. Aspergillus fumigatus, Chaetomium sp., Cunninghamella bertholletiaeTrichophyton tonsurans and Nigrospora sp. were less tolerant to the heavy metal concentrations. These three most tolerant fungal isolates (M. nanum, A. flavus and Penicillium) may be important in treating systems contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) because of their bioremediation potential.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility Test of Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca Isolated from Different Clinical Samples and Perform Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA among K. pneumoniae

Surya Subedi, Jyoti Maharjan, Bidya Shrestha

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/23376

Aims: To study the prevalence of MDR and ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytocaand perform RAPD (Random amplified polymorphic DNA) by optimizing PCR among isolated ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was done to assess the prevalence of MDR and ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca in urine, pus and sputum from March 2013 to April 2014 at KIST Medical College and PCR was performed at Nepal Academy of Science and Technology upto March, 2015.

Methodology: K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca were isolated from urine, pus and sputum samples from KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by using disk diffusion method. MDR isolates which were suspected as ESBL producers were confirmed by using double disk diffusion test and combined disk diffusion test for same isolates. Chromosomal DNA was isolated from ESBL producing K. pneumoniae. PCR was optimized by varying different reagents and visualized using gel electrophorosis. Under optimized condition chromosomal DNA was amplified, gel electrophoresis was performed and polymorphism was detected.

Results: The drug resistance pattern of K. oxytoca was high as compared to K. pneumoniae. In urine, pus and sputum samples the growth of both organisms was very much low i.e. 2.5% among total samples. 90% of K. pneumoniae isolated from urine were ESBL producers whereas only 42.85% of K. pneumoniae from pus and sputum were ESBL producers. K. oxytoca isolated from all samples were MDR as well as ESBL producers. Chromosomal DNA analysis of different antibiotic resistance pattern among K. pneumoniaeshowed higher the drug resistance lowers the polymorphism.

Conclusions: This study showed that higher the drug resistance lesser the polymorphism and greater the adaptability towards used antibiotics by production of antibiotic hydrolyzing enzymes. So, further study is required for the determination of polymorphism and drug resistance pattern correlation with organisms' adaptability to validate this concept.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Tolerance Profile among Bacteria from Auto-mechanic Workshop and Pristine Soil

D. R. Tiku, B. E. Asikong, I. U. Bassey

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/23597

The study was aimed at investigating the heavy metal tolerance profile among bacteria from auto-mechanic workshop and pristine soil samples. Auto-mechanic workshop and pristine soil environments were randomly sampled within Calabar Metropolis. The research was undertaken within a period of six months. Standard microbiological methods were used to isolate, characterize and identify bacteria isolates from the collected soil samples, while heavy metal tolerance test of the bacteria isolates was carried out using agar dilution method. Bacterial isolates from auto-mechanic workshop soil samples showed a marginally higher percentage tolerability to Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, Co and V than their pristine soil counterparts. Serratia spp (AMM2, AMME2), Klebsiella sp (AMM3), Corynebacterium (AME1), Yesinia sp (AME3), Pseudomonas sp (AMT) and Bacillus sp (AME4) tolerated high heavy metal concentration (300 µg/ml) of chromium, copper and lead either actively (bioaccumulation) or passively (adsorption) as compared to other bacteria isolates from both auto-mechanic workshop and pristine soil samples. Thus, these bacteria isolates could have applicability in bioremediation of heavy metal polluted environments and in the production of biosensors which can be utilized for both background and anthropogenic environmental heavy metal pollution.