Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Influenza A/Beijing/353/89 Virus Matrix Gene Sequence and Identification of Replaceable Amino Acids as Natural Mutations in M2 Protein

Yongxin Zhang, Monica Zhang, Ying Wang, Xyanthine Gilmore, Innocent N. Mbawuike

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27447

The influenza virus A/Beijing/353/89 matrix (M), M1 and M2 genes were cloned and sequenced. The sequence identity rates (based on published data) of the first 34 influenza A viruses with M genes most phylogenetically related to A/Beijing/353/89 virus were in significant positive correlation among M, M1 and M2 genes and M1 protein but not M2 protein. The number of viruses with M2 protein sequences identical to influenza A/Beijing/353/89 virus was significantly higher than those with identical M2 gene and M1 protein sequences (P<0.01). These results suggest that natural variation of M2 protein did not occur entirely in random. Based on a statistical standard we have established and using the A/Beijing/353/89 M2 as reference protein, 35 replaceable amino acids were identified by analysis of 193 published influenza A virus M2 protein sequences. In contrast, it is more possible that those critical amino acids for virus survival and/or replication harbored in the 24 amino acids, which were not yet found to have ever been substituted.


Open Access Original Research Article

Quorum Sensing Inhibitors: The Novel Bacterial Infection Disrupting Agents

Suha M. Abudoleh, Adel M. Mahasneh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27009

With increasing misuse of antimicrobial substances in medical settings, it became imminent to search for alternative pathogen control means to aid in preventing disease spread. Among such alternatives is the action upon virulent gene expression of the pathogen itself. A possible approach in this direction is the search for quorum sensing inhibitors from different components of the environment. In the last decade, a great interest in the search for new and novel anti-quorum sensing substances from plant and microbial origin has been observed. In this review, we are trying to follow up what has been published in this direction showing areas of interest for researchers to follow.

Open Access Original Research Article

Linezolid and Methicillin Resistances in S. aureus Isolated from the Anterior Nares of Apparently Healthy Undergraduates of the Niger Delta University, Nigeria

Abdulrasheed Abdu, Adebayo Lamikanra

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27202

Background: The carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the anterior nares of subjects in the study environment has not been carried out before and this study is thus a reference study against which future studies can be compared. The isolates obtained were also tested against frequently used antibiotics as well as linezolid, an antibiotic which is of considerable importance in the treatment of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Methods: A total of 400 nasal swabs were collected from anterior nares of apparently healthy subjects aseptically using a sterile swab sticks. The antibiotic susceptibilities of isolates of S. aureus obtained against eight different antibiotics including Linezolid were determined using the disc-plate method.

Results: The results showed that 91 (22.8%) of the subjects tested are nasal carriers of S. aureus. The incidences of resistance observed with each of the antibiotics tested were as follow: Erythromycin 83(91.2%), Tetracycline 79(86.8%), Co-trimoxazole 78(86.8%), Cefoxitin 77(84.6%), Linezolid 72(79.1%), Ciprofloxacin 70(76.9%), Augmentin 49(53.8%) and Gentamycin 39 (42.9%).

Conclusion: Treatment of S. aureus infections within the study environment should be based on the results of in vitro susceptibility testing of the isolates. Gentamicin promises to be the best antibiotic for the treatment of disorders associated with Staphylococci in the study area. This is of special importance in an environment within which a very substantial proportion of the isolates are resistant to methicillin and linezolid.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multidrug Resistance Phenotype and Plasmid Profiling of Escherichia coli Isolates Causing Urinary Tract Infections in North East Part of Bangladesh

Md. Fazle Rabbee, Musammat Kulsuma Begum, Md. Jahidul Islam, Parveen Afroz Chowdhury, Osul Ahmed Chowdhury, Fatema Tuj Zohora, Pijush Sutradhar, Kamrul Islam, Abul Kalam Azad

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27393

Aim: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli have become a significant worldwide public health concern and the situation is now worsening by the ability of bacteria to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. The main aim of our study is to determine the probable link of antibiotic resistance patterns with plasmid profile of E. coli isolates causing Urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Study Design: The design of this study was to i) identify bacteria causing UTIs, ii) investigate antimicrobial susceptibility, iii) analyze plasmid profiling and iv) find possible link between of antimicrobial susceptibility and plasmid profile.

Place and Duration of Study: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114, Bangladesh, from January 2011 to January 2015.

Methods: Urine samples were collected from 94 patients suspected with UTI. Bacterial isolates from the infected urine samples were identified based on morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. Antibiogram of bacterial isolates was performed by standard disc diffusion method. Plasmid isolation of all E. coli isolates was done by mini alkalysis method. Plasmid profiling was visualized following agarose gel electrophoresis.

Results: Fifty patients of them were infected with UTI. Among the 50 UTI positive patients, 29 were infected with E. coli. All the E. coli isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and nalidixic acid. Overall resistant phenotype of E. coli isolates to cefixime, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and azithromycin was 68.96%, 65.51%, 55.17% and 47.5% respectively. However, imipenem and gentamicin were found very effective as 96.55% and 82.75% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to these drugs, respectively. Approximately 90% of the E. coli isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics and were defined as multidrug resistant (MDR). Plasmid profiling showed that multiple plasmids of different sizes between 24.5 and 0.5 kb were present in most of the MDR E. coli isolates. However, no plasmid was found in several MDR E. coli isolates.   

Conclusion: Our data revealed that multidrug resistance pattern of E. coli isolates causing UTI was very alarming in Bangladesh and might be plasmid-mediated in most cases and also chromosomal DNA mediated in some cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on an Anaerobic Oral Microbiota among Autistic and Non-autistic Children

Archana Singh Sikarwar, Fransazellea Anak Runai Robert, Abhishek Parolia, Ankur Barua

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/18544

Aim: An evidence suggests that microbiota plays an important role in health and diseases. Studies also suggested that microbiota may be different in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than typically developing children. The aim of the study was to examine the oral bacterial strain/s commonly found in children with autism.

Study Design: Forty-three (43) children with ASD and forty-three (43) non-autistic children from the same age group were recruited from one of the autistic society in Malaysia from three centres in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

Results: Total eighty- six oral samples were tested using biochemical tests from autistic and non-autistic individuals. Eleven different bacterial species were identified. Actinomyces naeslundii was found in eight autistic samples whereas Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis were not detected in any of the samples.

Conclusion: The study found that Actinomyces naeslundii was significantly present in autistic group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Quality and Prevalence of Multidrug Resistant Gram-negative Bacteria from Surface and Underground Domestic Water Sources in Selected Locations in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

O. S. Alabi, O. J. Fatoyinbo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27445

Aim: To examine the bacteriological quality and prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria in surface and underground domestic water sources in Ibadan.

Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Collection of water samples was in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Analysis of water samples and characterisation of bacterial isolates was at the laboratory of the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Ibadan, between September 2015 and November 2015.

Materials and Methods: Twenty six water samples involving 2 collections each at 2 weeks intervals, from 13 different selected sources (8 hand-dug wells, 3 flowing rivers and 2 dams) were collected sequentially within Ibadan. Determination of total viable bacteria count was by pour-plate method, presumptive coliform count was by broth-dilution method, Bacterial identification was by standard methods and antibiotic susceptibility testing was by disc-diffusion method.

Results: The mean values of the total viable counts for the first water sample collection ranged from 3.1×102 to 6.2×104 cfu/mL and 2.4×102 to 6.1×104 cfu/mL for the second collection with the mean difference statistically significant for samples from sites AJR, DDR, ADM, EDM, WW-B and WW-G (P > .05). Most Probable Number of Coliforms ranged from 20 to >180/100 mL. A total of 7 bacteria genera including E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp., Providencia spp. and Enterobacter spp. were isolated. Among the isolates, 100% showed resistance to ampicillin, over 80% to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefuroxime and cefotaxime, 60% to ceftazidime, over 50% to ciprofloxacin and aztreonam, <40% to ofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and gentamicin while 100% were susceptible to the carbapenems. A total of 90.9% exhibited MDR phenotype.

Conclusion: In this study, the presence of high level of coliforms with MDR phenotype in surface and underground water used domestically in Ibadan signifies a public health hazard that requires urgent attention.