Open Access Short communication

A Promising Sustainable Pest Management Technology: Microbial Bio-Control Agent

Utpal Dey, Shatabhisa Sarkar, Meenakshi Malik, Mukesh Sehgal, Pijush Debbarma, Subhash Chander

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 23-26
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i1230361

Microbial bio-control agents play an important role in integrated pest management in modern agriculture for managing pests without affecting environment and humans. Recently, microbial bio-control agents are gaining more attention as they are easy to use, safe and an alternative eco-friendly approach of hazardous pesticide chemicals. Biological control agents are ecologically sustainable and effective crop protection approach in agriculture and horticultural crops including organic systems. Predator, parasitism or other natural mechanism can be use to reduce the pest such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Technological Characteristics of Wild Non-Saccharomyces Sourced from Banana Fruit and Honey

L. C. Nnodim, N. N. Odu, D. N. Ogbonna, D. B. Kiin-Kabari

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i1230357

This study is aimed at evaluating the technological characteristics of wild non-Saccharomyces sourced from banana fruit and wild honey. The isolation of yeasts was done according to standard microbiological procedures. Technological traits screened for are as follows: fermentation ability, alcohol production, flocculation ability, organic acid production, and hydrogen sulphide production. Five yeast isolates were identified as B10 (Candida tropicalis), B7 (Candida tropicalis), H4 (Candida tropicalis), H7 (Clavisporalusitaniae), and CY (Candida tropicalis), which are sugar fermenters. The percentage of alcohol produced from each sugar fermented by the yeast isolates are as follows: sucrose - B7(11.50%) > H7(8.62%) > CY (7.80%) > H4(4.88%) > B10 (4.11%); Glucose - B7(9.82%) > CY (6.28%) > B10(4.56%) > H7(4.03%) > H4(2.19%) and Fructose - H7(13.11%) > CY (9.40%) > B10(7.03%) > H4(4.41%) > B7(3.70%). Yeast isolate CY demonstrated high flocculation of 28.55 and 44.75 (%) at 5 and 15 (minutes). The organic acid produced by the yeast isolates B10, B7, CY, H4 and H7 are as follows 1.90±0.41, 3.10±0.41, 1.25±0.07, 3.90±0.41 and 2.40±0.41 (AU) respectively and Yeast isolates B7, CY, H4, and H7 produced low hydrogen sulphite concentration. Wild non-Saccharomyces could be the hope of the wine microbiologist to ease the challenges in the wine industry, as they competed flavourably with the commercial wine yeast.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Chlorella-Biomass Production Using Domestic and Restaurant Waste Water as a Potential Feedstock

K. F. Williams, O. K. Agwa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i1230359

The quest to invent a cost-effective media for commercial cultivation of microalgae biomass has remained a cause for motivation for quite some time now. In this study domestic and restaurant wastewater were obtained from Choba, Rivers State Nigeria. The biosafety of the wastewater was ascertained and prepared as a media for the cultivation of microalgae. The samples were prepared in 180:20, 160:40, 140:60, 120:80, and 100:100 ratios using pond water and mixture of domestic and restaurant wastewater respectively. The blooming process was observed for seven days and biomass was monitored by cell optical density and dry weight. The result revealed that biosafety evaluation saw a reduction from 120cfu/ml to 0cfu/ml on the third day. The optimal wavelength selected for growth monitoring was 620nm while growth media ratio selected was 120:80 for restaurant:domestic wastewater. The optimization revealed pH 6.0, temperature 300C, salinity 10ppm and photoperiod 12:12 day:night as optimal condition. Domestic wastewater can be a veritable medium for cultivation of Chlorella sp as a means of integrated waste management; the Chlorella biomass can be used as a feedstock for various biotechnological applications such as source of biochemical, nutraceuticals and for use in biofuel generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Antibody among the Residence of Island Communities of Lake Chad Basin, Borno State, Nigeria

Mohammed Shehu Busu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 27-37
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i1230362

Aim: The study sought to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) among the people of Lake Chad Basin of Borno State Nigeria.

Study Design: A cross sectional quantitative survey that derived information on   the behavioral characteristics, vulnerability of the population and prevalence of HBV and HCV.

Place and Duration of Study: Testing for HBV and HCV antibodies was carried out  among the people of urban and rural communities of Lake Chad Basin of Borno State Nigeria in 2017.

Methodology: 1790 samples were collected on dried sample blot card, dried and transported to National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development Abuja where the samples were tested using HBsAg ELISA rapid test kit (ACON, USA) and confirmed with HBsAg ELISA test kit (ABON, ABON Biopharm Hangzhou Co. Ltd). HCV tests was carried out using ACON hepatitis C test strip (ACON Laboratory, INC USA) and confirmed with ELISA HCV kit (ORTHO HCV version 3.0; Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Raritan, New Jersey, USA). The results were expressed in percentages

Results: The result of the study revealed that 28 representing 1.56% tested positive for HBV and 3(0.17%) was HCV positive. On disaggregation, Commercial sex workers (CSW) and prison inmates had the highest prevalence of HBV and HCV 8.5% and 1.41% respectively. The highest number of positive cases of HBV was recorded among the males in the age range of 40-44 (3.25%), while the highest cases among the females was within the age range of 35-39 (6.8%). HCV positive cases were one male and two females within the age range of 20-24. HBV was higher in urban communities (3.70%), while HCV was higher in rural communities (0.17%).

Conclusion: Interventions such as vaccination against HBV, sexual education prevention of blood exposure was suggested to mitigate further transmission of these infections

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Enzymatic Activity of Thermo-tolerant Bacteria from Waste Dumpsites in Umudikeand Environs

C. N. Obi, B. O. Ihuoma, S. Ike

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 38-50
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i1230363

The research studied the isolation of thermo-tolerant bacteria with enzymatic activity from waste dumpsites. 30 soil samples were collected using sterile spatular into sterile universal bottles, labelled and taken to the laboratory analyses. The soil samples were serially diluted and inoculated by spread plate method on different media and incubated at 30oC for 48 hrs. The isolates were observed for colonial morphologies and later sub-cultured to get pure isolates which were stored in agar slants and kept in the refrigerator for further use. The isolates were Gram stained and also subjected to biochemical and sugar fermentation tests. The isolates were then cultured at thermophilic temperature and those with positive results were screened for the production of amylase, protease and lipase activity. The effect of temperature, pH and nitrogen sources on enzyme activity of the thermophilic bacterial isolates was also assessed. Results show that Bacillus subtilis (70.0%), Bacillus licheniformis (43.3%), Bacillus cereus (56.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (56.7%), Streptomyces species (36.7%), Bacillus brevis (43.3%)and Norcadia species (30%) were recovered from the soil samples.  All the bacterial isolates tolerated 55oC of temperature while only Bacillus cereus, Bacillus brevis and Norcadia species were isolated at 60oC. All the isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa gave amylase activity while all the isolates gave protease activity. All the isolates except Bacillus licheniformis and Nocardia species had lipase activity. Temperature and pH had varied effects on the enzyme activity of the isolates. The potentials of these bacterial isolates as good sources of enzymes at elevated temperatures, varied pH and nitrogenous sources for commercial uses was recognized.