Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate, Microbial and Sensory Properties of Moi-Moi Produced with Crayfish and Grasshopper

A. T. Victor-Aduloju, H. C. Okonkwo, J. C. Osuji, N. J. Ukachi, I. W. Okonkwo, P. I. Okafor, T. M. Uchegbu, C. C. Ezegbe, A. J. Olopade

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i1130351

The research assessed the proximate, microbial and sensory properties of moi-moi produced with crayfish and grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus).  Cowpea seed, crayfish and grasshoppers were processed into flours using standard procedures. Cowpea-crayfish flour and cowpea-grasshopper flour were formulated with the ratios: 90:10, 85:15, 80:20 and 75:25 respectively. Proximate properties showed the range of values for Protein: 5.50-12.80, Fat: 5.27-8.07%, Carbohydrate: 28.30-38.87%, Moisture: 40.00-52.67%, Ash: 1.32-4.27% and Fiber: 1.63 -8.50%. Microbial analysis indicated bacteria count range of 4.1 × 105 - 8.5 × 105 CFU/g; fungal 2.1 × 105 - 4.2× 105 CFU/g and coliform 1.6 × 105 -3.8 × 105 CFU/g. Sensory attributes of the moi-moi samples were evaluated and the result ranged from 6.27-7.60 for colour, 6.33-7.13 for texture, 5.60-7.73, 6.13-7.00 for flavour and 6.20-7.60 for overall acceptability. The study established that moi-moi produced with crayfish and grasshopper contains high amount of nutritive value when compared with moi-moi produced only with cowpea flour. The result of the sensory evaluation showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between the samples indicating that moi-moi produced with grasshopper is acceptable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Microscopy, Boeck and Drbolav’s Stool Culture Medium and Bichro-latex Antibody Test with A Reference Elisa Antigen Test for E. histolytica Diagnosis in Calabar, Nigeria

Onosakponome, E. O., Ohanu C. E., Nyenke C. U.

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i1130353

Objective: Amoebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by E.histolytica, accurate diagnosis of E. histolytica is important in the treatment of amoebiasis and to avoid preventable costs. The study objective is to compare different diagnostic methods used in the diagnosis of amoebiasis for detection of E.histolytica parasite.

Materials and Methods: Faecal and serum specimens of 200 patients defined as symptomatic (diarrhea and dysentery) and asymptomatic (a case history of E.histolytica infection) was used for the study .Stool specimen was examined with microscopy, cultured in Boeck and drbolav’s medium and anti-E. histolytica antibodies were investigated using a latex slide test. Stool samples were also examined by immunoassay methods for specific antigens which is the reference standard for comparison.

Result: Two hundred (200) samples examined for E.histolytica parasite 12(6.0%) were positive in in microscopy,34(17%) in bichro-latex antibody test and 6(3.0%) in Boeck and drbolav’s culture medium. The three test methods showed significant detection of E.histolytica parasite(p<0.05). Microscropic method detected 100% of E.histolytica infection in symptomatic patients and Boeck and Drbohlav’s culture medium detected 33.3%. However, the method of diagnosis is not associated with the diagnosis E.histolytica infection in asymptomatic and symptomatic Patients(p>0.05).The diagnostic precision of the microscopy diagnostic method showed that sensitivity was 40.2%, specificity was 82.3%, PPV 39.6% and NPV 70.4% .The sensitivity was 86.6%, specificity was 70.6% PPV 87.6% and NPV 75.6% for bichro-latex antibody test and The sensitivity was 20.6 %, specificity was 50.6 %, PPV 34.6%, NPV 61.2% for Boeck and Drbohlav’s culture medium

Conclusion: The result from the comparison of the three diagnostic methods for E.histolytica parasite indicate high sensitivity and specificity for bichro-latex antibody test when compared with the other methods. however, in areas were molecular technology such as Polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is not available, bichro-latex antibody assay is recommended. although,microscopic examination can be used in diagnosis of amoebiasis in geographical areas with technological limitation in health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Assessment of Kunu Sold in Awka Metropolis

C. C. Ezemba, C. C. Obinabo, E. J. Archibong, O. M. Mbah

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i1130355

Kunu is a non-alcoholic Nigerian beverage produced locally from cereals and has been widely accepted as a nutritional drink. The need for evaluation of its nutritional and safety status is very much essential. This work was carried out to determine the microbiological quality of “kunu-zaki” beverages sold in Awka metropolis. Three samples of “kunu-zaki” beverages were obtained from three different locations in Awka, Anambra state namely; Amansea, Eke-Akwa and Amawbia, labelled P, Q and R, respectively. These samples were tested for both bacterial and fungal contamination. The results show that for the colony counts from the Kunu samples ranged from 0.5×105 to 3.2 ×105 for total coliform bacteria, 2.5×105 to 4.2×105 for total heterotrophic fungi for the three samples analyzed. Bacterial isolates identification revealed the presence of Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sp, while the fungal isolates include; Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp, Fusarium sp and Saccharomyces sp. The data revealed that all the Kunu drinks sold within the study area were contaminated and also contained different pathogenic microorganisms which can serve as sources of infections to human. Therefore, proper hygienic and sanitary measures need to be enforced during production, processing and packaging of this local beverage drink.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Growth Abilities in Carbofuran and Paraquat

T. L. Ataikiru, E. A. Odesiri-Eruteyan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 26-37
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i1130356

Introduction: The norm of pesticides use is very crucial in protecting the agriculturalists’ venture in seeds, fertilizer and labour as they provide a sure protection from damage by pests. The use of pesticides is thus, unavoidable and the associated environmental contamination owing to these toxicants and their deposits will remain a concern.

Aim: The research aimed at isolating Carbofuran and Paraquat degrading bacterial species and assessing their growth capacities at different concentrations of these pesticides.

Study Design:  Microcosms were set-up in test tubes in replicates (320 test tubes) and sacrificial sampling technique was adopted during growth test.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Delta State/Three months.

Methodology: Standard method was used to isolate Carbofuran and Paraquat degrading bacteria. Isolates were screened for their abilities to use Carbofuran and Paraquat as the only carbon source. Bacterial isolates were identified and subjected to the growth test at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% of Carbofuran (w/v) and Paraquat (v/v), respectively. Growth abilities were scored by turbidity and colour variations.

Results: The growth abilities at different pesticide’s concentrations were significantly different at P=.05.

Conclusion: This research revealed that the bacterial isolates were able to grow at various concentrations using these chemicals but best at 0.5% with higher growth rates in microcosms containing Paraquat. If these test microorganisms can grow in the presence of these toxicants, there is the likelihood that they maybe be able to reduce both Carbofuran and Paraquat hazards of contaminated areas. Thus, these bacteria can be used for the clean-up of these pesticides pollution in farms to ameliorate the problems of pesticide pollution in environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Cochliobolus hawaiiensis in a Camel Farm in Saudi Arabia: An Emerging Disease

M. S. Shathele Abdullah

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 38-44
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i1130358

Phaeohyphomycosis describes subcutaneous lesions caused by dematiaceous fungi, brown-pigmented mould. In a camel farm in Saudi Arabia, the owner complained of cases of skin infection among camels. Lesions persisted after sarcoptic mange outbreak which was treated until the infection resolved. General examination revealed that four camels were affected showing alopecia, erythema, numerous small subcutaneous nodules and brownish blackish crusts. To collect specimens, affected areas were disinfected with 70% ethyl alcohol and deep were taken. Skin scrapings were prepared in 10% potassium hydroxide for microbiological examination. Cultures were done onto Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with chloramphenicol 0.5 mg per ml, incubated at 30⁰C and another set with chloramphenicol 0.5 mg per ml and cycloheximide (Sigma), 0.4 mg/L, incubated at 27⁰C and 37⁰C. Molecular mycology analysis was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene using ITS1 and ITS4 primers.

Microscopic examination indicated it was negative for dermatophytes. It showed brownish to black, septate hyphae arranged as arthro-hyphae, and black yeast-like particles. Cultures yielded multiple, velvety, gray colonies turning brownish black later. Lactophenol cotton-blue smears revealed septate, branched hyphae that are dark brown in colour1.5–5 μ wide. Conidiophores are septate, unbranched with flexuose apexes, bearing brown, multi-septate, cylindrical conidia. ITS gene sequence analysis confirmed the isolate from camel skin scrapings to be Cochliobolus hawaiiensis. The case is interesting as this represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first authenticated report of C. hawaiiensis in animals from a tropical country.