Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Various Extracts from Safou (Dacryodes edulis) Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire

Andrée Emmanuelle Sika, Romuald Léonce Kadji, Lacinan Ouattara, Soumaïla Dabonné, Rose Koffi-Nevry

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i830336

Safou (Dacryodes edulis) is a fruit with very interesting nutritional and pharmacological properties. However, this fruit remains rather unknown to the Ivorian population.

Aims: The objective of this study was to highlight the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the seed and pulp of Safou (Dacryodes edulis) cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire for its valorization.

Study Design: Microbiological and biochemical studies

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology,Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, between September 2020 and February 2021.

Methodology: Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the pulp and seed of Safou were prepared. Moisture content, pH, yield, total polyphenols,diphényl-2-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) radical scavenging testof the different extracts were determined.Aqueous, ethanolicand methanolicextracts of the seed and pulp at varying concentrations of 200 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 25 mg/mL, 12.5mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL was tested against human pathogens such asEscherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicilliumchrysogenum.

Results: pH, moisture content and yield ranged from 3.16 to 4.74; 9 to 18.30%; and 10.79 to 18.78%, respectively. Total polyphenol content ranged from 1.45 mgEAG/g to 4.56 mgEAG/g. The highest levels of total polyphenols were observed for the methanolic extracts of pulp. The different extracts strongly scavenged the DPPH radical with percentages of anti-free radical activity that varied from 50.76 to 64.43%.The antimicrobial susceptibility results of the methanolic extracts of D. edulis seed showed highest zones of inhibition to the microbial isolates tested. The microorganisms were resistant to the aqueous extracts of pulp and seed.

Conclusion: The presence of bioactive compounds and the antimicrobial activity of Safou extracts could justify its use in the food and pharmaceutical fields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Isolated from Raw Meat from Modake and Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Eunice Damilola Wilkie, Anthonia Olufunke Oluduro, Chidinma Vivian Ezeani, Toyosi Teniola Sotala

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 9-13
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i830337

The study reported isolation, identification and antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from raw meat from Modakeke and Ile-ife, Osun State, Nigeria, with the view to determining the antibiogram profiling of the bacterial isolates. 

In this study, five samples of fresh meat were collected from different abattoirs in Ile-Ife and Modakeke, Osun State. Isolates of Escherichia coli were isolated, identified morphologically based on their growth on nutrient agar and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility test on Mueller Hinton agar. The mean microbial load from the meat samples ranged from 8.85 x 102cfu/ml to 5.77 x 104cfu/ml. A total of 69 E. coli isolates were recovered from the meat sampled. All the isolates appeared cream, translucent, entire, convex, circular, smooth and glistering. The isolates were identified as Gram negative rods, non-motile, lactose fermenters, positive for indole test and negative for citrate utilization test. All the E. coli isolates were resistant to augmentin, ceftriazone, nitrofurantoin and gentamycin. 98.55% of E. coli isolated was resistant to amoxillin and the least resistant was recorded in ofloxacin (8.70%). However, 91.30% of the E. coli isolates was sensitive to ofloxacin, 81.16% to ciprofloxacin and 36.23% to pefloxacin while none was sensitive to augmentin, ceftriazone, nitrofurantoin and gentamycin. A total of 19 different multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were observed among the isolates. Thirty isolates (43.48%) showed multiple antibiotic resistance to 5 and 10 different antibiotic types each.

The study concluded that occurrence of E. coli infection is high in the study area with high level of multiple antibiotic resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Indices of Phyto Remediated Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil and the Effect of Bio-nutrient Amendment

J. O. Dasetima-Altraide, D. N. Ogbonna, T. K. S. Abam, A. E. Gobo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 14-33
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i830338

Aim: To assess the Physicochemical indices of Phytoremediated Crude Oil polluted amended soil using grass plant Cyperus esculentus (Cyp) and Phyllanthus amarus (Phy).

Study Design: The study employs experimental design, statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study: Rivers State University demonstration farmland in Nkpolu- Oroworukwo, Mile 3 Diobu area of Port Harcourt, was used for this study. The piece of land is situated at Longitude 4°48’18.50” N and Latitude 6ᵒ58’39.12” E measuring 5.4864 m x 5.1816 m with a total area of 28.4283 square meter. Phytoremediation process monitoring lasted for 240 days; analyses were carried out monthly at 30 days’ interval.

Methodology: The study was carried out on Crude Oil Polluted soil (PS) amended with bio-nutrient supplements (Spent Mushroom Substrate (SMS) and selected fungi (Aspergillus niger(AN) andMucor racemosus (MR)) used to stimulate and augment the indigenous microbial population present in a crude oil polluted soil thereby enhancing hydrocarbon reduction in pari per sue with phytoremediation (uptake of Crude oil by test plants) over a period of 240 days. Ten (10) experimental plots (two Control (Unpolluted and polluted soil without amendment) and eight polluted amended/treated plots) employing Randomized Block Design (each having dimensions: 100 x 50 x 30 cm LxBxH); formed and mapped out on agricultural soil and left fallow for 6 days before contamination on the seventh day; after which it was allowed for 21 days for proper contamination and exposure to natural environmental factors (to mimic soil crude oil spill site); thereafter nutrients/organics (biostimulating agents) and bioaugmenting organisms were applied. Baseline studies were carried out on soil profile before and after contamination, major parameters monitored and assayed were Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) uptake by plant roots and stem, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and TPH reduction in soil. Other physicochemical properties analyzed in the soil from different plots were pH, Electrical Conductivity, Moisture Content, Total Nitrogen, Available Phosphorus, Potassium, Total Organic Carbon, Plant Height, Iron, Lead and Zinc at regular intervals; days 1, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 & 240. The rate of phytoremediation was estimated from percentage (%) uptake of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in plant roots and stem from day 1 -240; while percentage (%) reduction of TPH and PAHs in soil was estimated from day 1 to the residual at day 240.

Results: The test plants decreased significant amount of crude oil as revealed in TPH uptake in their roots and Stem. Mean amount and percentage Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) uptake by Cyperus esculentus roots and stem were; 152.33±50.34mg/kg, 12.57±4.16% and 201.13±8.80mg/kg, 13.27±0.58% respectively; while that of Phyllanthus amarusroots and stem were 141.50±35.62mg/kg, 11.68±2.94% and 174.44±19.98mg/kg, 11.51±1.32% respectively; revealing higher Uptake of TPH in plant stem than roots. From the initial TPH contamination value of 5503.00mg/kg, it was observed that plots planted with Cyperus esculentus (TPH 5492.75±76.36mg/kg) showed higher reduction of TPH from soil than those planted with Phyllanthus amarus(TPH 5449.72±18.27mg/kg); while PAHs degradation/reduction showed a reverse trend with plots planted with Phyllanthus amarus (PAHs 28.72±2.74mg/kg; 60.46±5.77%) higher than plots planted with Cyperus esculentus

s (PAHs 25.77±2.12mg/kg, 54.24±4.47%).

Conclusion: Plots planted with Cyperus esculentus showed higher reduction of TPH from soil than those planted with Phyllanthus amarus while PAHs degradation/reduction in plots planted with Phyllanthus amarus was higher than plots planted with Cyperus esculentus. TPH uptake was higher in plant stems than roots; more so, plots amended with nutrient supplements showed significant higher percentage reduction in hydrocarbon in the polluted soil than unamended polluted soil. It is therefore recommended that Cyperus esculentus is a suitable plant species for phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil with high TPH value while Phyllanthus amarusis the best option in phytoremediation of polluted soil with high PAHs value, both in combination with bio-nutrient supplement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Diagnostic Utility of Geohelminths from Environmental and Stool Samples in Nnewi Metropolis

Chioma Maureen Obi, Anikpe Chinwoke Akunna, Ifeanyi Onyema Oshim, Bright Unaeze, Okeke Monique Ugochukwu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 34-41
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i830339

Background: Geohelminths are groups of four intestinal soil transmitted parasites.They are of public health concern due to their serious morbidity they cause in children which are the major groups affected.

Aim/Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of wet mount and concentration techniques of stool and soil samples for identification of geohelminths.

Methodology: Eighty stool samples were collected from four primary schools, while forty soil samples were collected from the important sites (playground, and classroom areas) in each of the school accessed. The stool samples were examined with the wet preparation and formol-ether concentration technique, while the soil samples were examined with the formol-ether concentration technique. Ethical approval was sought from the Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology. Results: The results of geohelminths showed an overall prevalence of 6.25% (5/80) from the stool samples, and 27.5% (11/40) obtained from the soil. Recovery rates from the stool showed the presence of only two geohelminth;Hookworm (5%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (1.25%). Out of the four schools examined only three showed positive results with geohelminth infections, while the remaining school showed positive results with only Giardia.lamblia. The recovery rates from the soil also showed the same pattern of distribution as with the stool but with a higher prevalence of Hookworm (20.7%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (7.5%) with the toilet areas showing the highest prevalence (50%). The dominant specie of geohelminth observed in both stool and soil was Hookworm. The results also showed that both male (6%) and female (6.7%) are susceptible to the infection with no significant difference between their prevalances (p>0.05).

Conclusion: The prevalence of Hook worm was poorly reported by wet mount technique.The diagnostic performance of concentration methods for the diagnosis of Hook worms in the samples was notably high as compared to wet mount techniques.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Quality Assessment of Well and Stream Water Sources from Ikwerre, Emohua and Etche Local Government Areas of Rivers State

A. A. Okwelle, B. E. Asikong, J. A. Lennox

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 42-55
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i830340

Background: Majority of the human population in semi-urban and urban areas in Nigeria are heavily reliant on well and stream water as the main source of water supply for drinking and domestic use due to the inadequate provision of potable pipe borne water. These groundwater sources can easily be fecally contaminated and thus, increase the incidence and outbreaks of preventable waterborne diseases. This study was carried out to determine the bacteriological quality of some well and stream waters sources in Ikwerre, Emohua and Etche Local Government Areas of Rivers State.

Methodology: Twenty-four sampling sites with 8 from each Local Government Area were randomly selected for this study. A total of 48 samples, 2 from each of the sites were collected aseptically for 12 months. Samples were analysed using membrane filtration technique for total heterotrophic bacterial count and total coliform count. The well and stream water samples were also cultured for E. coli, Salmonella, and Vibrio sp.

Results: The results show that Emohua Local Government Area had the highest total heterotrophic bacterial count of 5.2 x 103 cfu/ml. This was followed by Ikwerre LGA with total bacterial count of 4.3 x 102 cfu/ml, while Etche LGA had 3.1 x 102 cfu/ml. The total coliform count ranged from 25 cfu/100ml to 50 cfu/100ml for the three LGA’s, whereas the faecal coliform count was between 12 cfu/100ml and 20 cfu/100ml. The total coliform, E. coli, Salmonella and Vibrio counts from the three local government areas occurred above the WHO stipulated zero count in 100ml of water.

Conclusion: The results from this study showed contamination of all the wells studied with faecal coliforms thus, indicating the presence of other enteric pathogens and a potential source for waterborne disease outbreaks. Well water in Ikwerre, Emohua and Etche Local Government Areas of Rivers State are not safe for drinking without additional treatment like disinfection or boiling. Periodic testing and constant monitoring of these water sources should also be done to meet up with the World Health Organization Standards in the provision of safe, clean drinking water.