Open Access Minireview Article

Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus an Important Enemy against us; Why Investigation of Their Main Toxins Reveals Contradictory Data

Sultan F. Alnomasy

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i530315

Community-Acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains are serious human pathogens because of their micro floral abilities; resistance to clinically important antibiotics and ability to evade the host immune defences. Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL) and Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are the main important virulence factors of CA-MRSA. The aim of this work was to provide an explanation on why there are contradictory findings in studies of PVL and PSMs. Several factors such as differences in growth media or in injection mode, species-specific interaction, contamination in culture supernatants, the concentration of toxin, and exposure time that have an effect on conducting of these studies were discussed in this paper.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiogram of Biofilm Producing Bacteria Isolated from Urine of Patients in Three Hospitals in Port Harcourt, Rivers State

Onyedibia Golden Chukwuma, Williams Janet Olufunmilayo, Douglas Salome Ibietela

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 5-20
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i530316

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the antibiogram of biofilm producing bacteria isolated from urine of patients in three hospitals in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

Study Design: The study employs statistical analysis of the data and interpretation

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at three (3) hospitals; University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Meridian Hospital D / line branch (MRD1) and Meridian Hospital Ikoku branch, all located in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Sample collection was for three (3) months, analysis was carried out daily and it lasted for six (6) months.

Methodology: A total of Forty-five (45) urine samples were collected for a period of three (3) months from the three (3) hospitals. The samples were labelled properly, according to date and time of collection. The collected samples were subjected to standard microbiological procedures which includes standard plate counts, identification, biofilm screening, sensitivity testing using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, Phenotypic screening of extended spectrum beta lactamase and molecular characterization of the isolates

Results: The results of the bacterial population of urine samples from the hospitals showed that the total heterotrophic bacterial counts for Meridian Hospital D/line (MRD1), Meridian Hospital Ikoku (MRD2) and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) ranged from 4.93 - 6.30 x107cfu/ml. The Total coliform count ranged from 1.89-3.04 x106cfu/ml for Meridian Hospital D/line (MRD1), Meridian Hospital Ikoku (MRD2) and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Total faecal coliform counts ranged from 0.78-1.11 x105CFU/ml for Meridian Hospital D/line (MRD1), Meridian Hospital Ikoku (MRD2) and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). A total of fifty-eight (58) bacterial isolates were isolated from urine of patients and 36(62.1%) isolates were identified as biofilm producers. The biofilm bacteria identified were 17.2% Staphylococcus,6.9% E. coli, 10.3% Pseudomonas, 6.9% Proteus ,10.3% Bacillus and 10.3% Enterococcus species. Biofilm forming ability of bacteria is considered a virulent factor and it is implicated to being a possible cause of increased resistance to most antibiotics. Varying susceptibility pattern was observed among biofilm isolates. Biofilm bacteria were resistant to several groups of antibiotics. Ofloxacin, Gentamycin, Imipenem and Nitrofurantoin can be used as drug of interest for most bacterial biofilm urinary tract infections. CTX-M and TET A gene were identified in the biofilm bacteria in this study to be possible factors that confer resistance to antibiotics. The presence of icaD and papC gene in the isolates whose genome were studied have been found to be possible factors that confers biofilm producing ability. This study indicates the emergence and rapid spread of biofilm producing bacteria and their resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, strict infection control practices as well as therapeutic guidance for confirmed infections should be rapidly initiated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Microbiological Quality of Soy Cheeses Sold at the Dantokpa Market in the Municipality of Cotonou in Benin

Célestin C. K. Tchekessi, Christian T. R. Konfo, Roseline T. M. Bleoussi, Kévin C. M. Seho, Anayce A. M. Djogbe, Pivot S. A. Sachi, Jultesse S. B. Banon, Karl T. Assogba, Edwige Ahoussi, Innocent P. Bokossa Yaou

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 21-26
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i530317

The objective of this study is to contribute to improving the health quality of soy cheese produced and sold in Benin, through the evaluation of the microbiological quality of samples taken at the Dantokpa market in southern Benin. Samples were taken from the women producers and sellers of this cheese in this market. A total of two hundred and forty (240) samples were collected from five producer-sellers. The cheese samples were sent under suitable conditions to the laboratory where various microbiological analyzes were performed. The results revealed that salmonella, sulfite-reducing anaerobic bacteria (SRA), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were absent in all samples. In contrast, aerobic mesophilic bacteria and total coliforms were present at loads above the limit values ​​established for food intended for human consumption. The microbiological quality of the products analyzed was generally unsatisfactory. Consequently, it is necessary to put in place a policy to raise awareness among producers-sellers of the markets on hygiene rules in order to guarantee the safety of consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipolytic Activities of Bacteria and Fungi Isolated from Soil Samples

Racheal Oluwayemisi Fashogbon, Bose Adebayo, Victoria Musa, Titilayo Femi-Ola

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 27-43
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i530318

This study was carried out at the Department of Microbiology, Microbiology Laboratory, Ado-Ekiti State University, Ekiti State, Nigeria between July, 2018 to March, 2019. Due to the diverse biotechnological importance of lipases as a biocatalytic enzyme, extracellular production of microbial lipases has to gain lots of interest. This study, therefore, focused on the physicochemical parameters of lipase producing microorganisms from different soil samples. Microorganisms were isolated from four different soil samples using Nutrient Agar (NA) and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). The isolates were identified and characterized. Production, an assay for Lipase enzymes, purification, the effect of pH, Temperature and metal ion was investigated. The isolates were culturally, morphologically and biochemically characterized. Two of the bacteria strains (Bacillus sp. and Staphylococcus sp.) and four fungi (Fusarium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton sp.) isolates were able to produce lipid using Sudan Black B Fat staining techniques. Fusarium sp. isolated from dumpsite soil had the highest specific lipase activity (21.16 µmol/min/ml) while Bacillus sp. isolated from red oil spill soil had the highest lipase activity (0.59 µmol/min/mg). The specific activity of partially purified lipase for Fusarium sp. was 2.39 µmol/min/mg while Bacillus sp. had a specific activity of 2.46 µmol/min/mg. 30oC - 50oC, pH 7.0 to 9.0 and KCl2 (139.672%) supported the highest production of lipase by the Bacillus sp. and Fusarium sp. This study demonstrated that the Bacillus sp. produced a high amount of lipase activity followed by Fusarium sp. Extensive and persistent screening for new microorganisms and their lipolytic activities will help to provide faster ways to solve most environmental soil pollution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteria Isolated from Hospital Surfaces and Environment in Kenya

Maina Susan Muthoni

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 44-55
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i530319

Objective: Control of hospital environment is key to success of healthcare quality. Increasing emergence and spread of pathogenic bacteria is of great concern and continues to challenge infection prevention and epidemiology practice. This study aimed at providing information about the management of hospital environment and wastes in selected hospitals in Kenya, determine prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) (public) and Kikuyu Mission Hospital (KMH) (private) in Kenya from May 2015 to April 2017. In microbiological analysis, a total of 246 samples from each of the two hospitals was obtained using sterile cotton swabs from random sampling of hospital different surfaces, drainages, hands of healthcare givers and hospital waste dump site among others.

Results: A total of 471 bacterial isolates were recovered, and were distributed as follows; Providentia spp, Staphylococcus aureus spp, Escherichia    coli spp (E. coli), other Gram negative bacteria were, Pseudomonas spp, coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CONS), Serratia spp, Klebsiella spp,  Proteus spp and Enterobacter spp. Susceptibility test revealed that Escherichia coli isolates were the most sensitive isolate to antibiotics. Imipenem drug showed 100% sensitivity for Gram negative, while Gram-positive isolates, linezolid antibiotic was the most sensitive drug.

Discussion: There is need for stringent review of hospital waste management system in Kenya. The frequency of ESBL producing strains among clinical isolates has been steadily increasing.

Conclusion: Continued drug resistance surveillance of ESBL isolates is necessary to guide the appropriate and judicious antibiotic use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Escherichia coli Detected in Pig Faecal Samples from Anambra State

E. A. Kyrian-Ogbonna, I. A. Ekwealor, E. N. Eze, R. A. Eluba, E. C. Nworji, E. C. Ogah, A. A. Oladejo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 56-63
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i530320

Aim: Pig farmers use antibiotics for therapeutic, metaphylaxis, prophylaxis and growth promotion in their farm animals. This work was aimed to determine the antibiogram of Escherichia coli isolated from pig faecal samples from pig farms in the three senatorial zones of Anambra State.

Materials and Methods: A total of 80 faecal samples were collected from forty pig farms in the three senatorial zones (Anambra North, Anambra Central and Anambra South) of Anambra State from February, 2018-January, 2019 and analyzed microbiologically using MacConkey agar and Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) Agar and appropriate culture conditions. Recovered isolates were further characterized based on their morphological and biochemical features. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was tested to 10 conventional antibiotics using Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion method.

Results: A total of 140 Escherichia coli isolates were recovered and characterized. Percentage occurrences were 36.4, 30.1 and 33.5 in Anambra North, Anambra Central and Anambra South respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolates revealed that resistance of the isolates ranged from 7% resistance to Imipenem to 67% resistance to Streptomycin. A one way analysis of variance showed no significant difference (p >0.05) in resistance to imipenem, amoxicillin/clavulanic, ceftazidime, tetracycline, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol and significant difference (p < 0.05) in resistance to streptomycin and cefotaxime in the three senatorial zones studied. 51.4% of the isolates were multidrug resistant.

Conclusion and Recommendation: Misuse and overuse of antibiotics in piggery have resulted in antibiotic resistance in isolates from pig faecal samples. Policies regarding prudent use of antibiotics in pig farms should be enforced to reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Susceptibility to Antibiotics and Reactive Oxygen Species in Escherichia coli: A Survey of Clinical and Environmental Isolates

Carlos F. Amábile-Cuevas, Leticia Martínez, Irma Rosas

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 64-71
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i530321

Aims: Some bacterial responses to oxidative stress also diminish antibiotic susceptibility; also, some antibiotics do increase oxidative stress within bacterial cells. Linkage or cross-resistance to prooxidants and antibiotics could facilitate the selection of antibiotic resistance and/or virulence. We made this survey in order to detect this possible linkage in Escherichia coli isolates.

Methodology: The susceptibility of 102 E. coli clinical (causative of urinary or gastrointestinal infections) and environmental (rural or urban dust) isolates towards paraquat, H2O2, and antibiotics was measured using disc assays. Catalase and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activities were measured.

Results: Susceptibility to prooxidants was similar across isolates of all four sources, but urinary and urban dust isolates were more resistant to antibiotics. H2O2 "resistant" organisms had more antibiotic resistance phenotypes, particularly towards sulfadiazine and tetracycline. Paraquat "resistance" seems associated to beta-lactam resistance; but paraquat "susceptibility" seems associated to resistance towards chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin. Prooxidant disc assays correlate to catalase and superoxide-dismutase activities. A weak relationship H2O2/antibiotic-resistance, but not superoxide/antibiotic-resistance, is suggested.

Conclusion: Overall, antibiotics exerting their action through oxidative stress, do not seem to have resulted in the co-selection of oxidative stress resistance, or vice versa. However, a possible link between resistance to some antibiotics and to H2O2 might contribute to co-selection between these two chemical insults.