Open Access Short Research Article

In Vivo Evaluation of Soya Beans Flour Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria as a Potential Probiotic Food

Abdulkadir Musliu, Muhammed Yusuf, Sulaimon Adebisi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 16-27
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i430310

This research work was carried out to determine the in vivo antibacterial potential of soya beans flour fermented with lactic acid bacteria. This research focused on the feeding trial of formulated feed made of soya bean fermented for 72 hours with lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus planetarium) for albino rats, this is to know the effect of this feed on the rat infected with pathogens, compare with those of control feed. The pathogens used were Escherichia coli, Shigella sp and Salmonella sp. The experiment was divided into eight (8) treatments. Treatments I and II were not infected. Treatment I was fed with normal basal diet while treatment II was fed with the fermented soya bean flour. This was to ascertain the level of existence of the pathogen and the lactic acid bacteria before the introduction the pathogens. Pathogens count in treatment IV, VI, and VIII (rats fed with fermented soya bean flour) decreases as feeding time increases compare to treatment III, V and VII (rat fed with basal diet) which increases with the feeding time. The rats were fed from day 0 to day 56. Lactic acid bacteria commonly used as starter cultures in food technology are known to manufacture antimicrobial products and improve the food the organolpetic properties having great potential. Also, the Haematological analysis showed that the rats infected with the pathogens and later fed with the fermented soya beans flour recovered fully since their values are well within the permissible limit and are not significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different from the control group. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroids strains used were able to grow and metabolize during fermentation of soya beans flour. It may be concluded that fermented soya beans flour with these isolates can be used as probiotic food and this in turn can be used in the treatment of infection caused by pathogens. It is recommended that the use of probiotic food for treatments should encouraged as an alternative to the use of antibiotic.

Open Access Original Research Article

CBNAAT Based Identification and Demographic Pattern of Drug Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in South Kashmir, India- a One Year Retrospective Study

Rubeena Hakkak, Saqib Rishi, Javid Ahmed Bhat

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i430308

India is the highest TB burden country in the world having an estimated incidence of 26.9 lakh cases in 2019. With a population of 1.32 billion, India has the highest burden of drug resistant TB (DR-TB) in the world. North zone of India is the second highest MDR-TB prevalent zone after the West zone of India. MDR TB treatment involves prolonged treatment with injectable second-line drugs, associated with more adverse effects, suboptimal treatment outcomes and higher risks of mortality compared to patients with drug-sensitive TB and those with lesser resistant forms of TB.

Materials methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the department of Microbiology Government Medical College Anantnag, data was analyzed from March 2017 to February 2018. Non-sterile specimens were processed by Modified Petroff Method. Sterile specimens were concentrated by centrifugation and smear and cultures was inoculated from the sediment. CBNAAT assay was performed by Gene Xpert (Cepheid) 4 system according to the manufacturers’ recommendations.

Results: Of the total 1497 clinically suspected tuberculosis specimens collected, 1370 (91.5%) were pulmonary and 127 (8.5%) were presumptive extra pulmonary tuberculosis received from different anatomical sites. Maximum clustering of cases was seen in 10-20 years age group. Out of the total 1497 samples 200 were CBNAAT confirmed Mycobacterium Tuberculosis positive samples. In which 155 were pulmonary and 45 were extra pulmonary. The average percentage positivity rate (i.e. percentage of MTB positive samples out of total samples tested) was 13.3% (200/1497).  Rifampicin resistance (RR-TB) was seen in 5.5% (11/200) samples. Out of the samples detected positive (200): 155 were pulmonary samples and out of these 155 pulmonary samples 8 were found to be RR MTB 5.1% (8/155).  Also out of the 200 positive samples 45 were extra pulmonary and out of these 45 extra pulmonary samples 3 were found to be RR MTB 6.6% (3/45).

Conclusion: In this study we found that in our region 5.5%  cases of TB were RR-TB, 3.2% were new cases and 13% RR-TB was seen in  previously treated cases of MTB. The screening of drug resistance has to be expanded to offer universal DST including expanded DST .The second and most important activity is to strengthen drug resistance surveillance under the various national programs with inclusion of laboratories in the private sector as well. The state level regional studies also give us the opportunity to plan and execute intervention prioritization, based on the drug resistance trends observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Microbes in Protein Supplements Available Commercially

Mohammad Alhamdan, Abrar Ahmad, Othman A. Baothman

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 6-15
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i430309

Supplements have been used widely since several years and their production has greatly increased with many different types, e.g. (Vitamins, Collagen, Proteins. etc...), and for multiple uses. Supplements were made to complete the nutrients deficiency that people have, or to prevent the deficiency condition, and some are using it to boost their body with nutrients like the athletes. Protein is one of the most selling supplements in the market used as powder or drink, and also been added to many different foods and snacks to make it healthier. This paper involves a food safety and quality study to identify and characterize the microbial pathogens in protein powder supplements available commercially.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment of Powdered Maize Ogi Fortified with African Walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) Flour

Ihuoma Ahaotu, Chimebuka Victory Eni, Ndukwe Maduka

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 28-51
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i430311

Protein deficiency of fermented cereal gruel popularly known as ogi (akamu) is a justification to fortify it with African walnut. In this study, powdered maize ogi and walnut flour in the ratio 100:0; 90:10; 80:20 and 70:30 labelled AZ, BY, CX and DW, respectively were formulated. Sample ‘AZ’ served as the control. Microbiological analysis, proximate composition, and functional properties of the composite flour samples were determined using Standard methods. Sensory evaluation of ogi porridge prepared using the flour samples were carried out using 9-point Hedonic scale. Total heterotrophic bacterial and fungal count of the flour samples were within the range of 7.01-7.41 and 4.23-4.45 log10CFU/g, respectively. The frequency of occurrence of bacterial isolates from the flour samples include Corynebacterium spp. (27%), Micrococcus spp. (14%), Lactobacillus spp. (13%), Citrobacter spp. (13%), Pseudomonas spp. (13%), Bacillus spp. (13%) and Streptococcus spp. (7%) while the fungal isolates were Aspergillus spp. (45%), Rhizopus spp. (22%), Geotrichum spp. (22%) and Mucor spp. (11%). All the proximate parameters and functional properties of the flour samples showed significant differences (p<0.05) with the exception of protein content and bulk density, respectively. Sample ‘AZ’, ‘BY’, ‘CX’ and ‘DW’s protein content is 0.88±0.08%, 1.14±0.20%, 1.23±0.27% and 1.31±0.38%, respectively. The lipid content (2.00±0.75 - 15.20±0.61%), ash content (0.40±0.06 - 0.90±0.04%), emulsion capacity (2.98±0.14 - 5.62±0.17%), bulk density (0.56±0.06 - 0.61±0.06 g/ml), and swelling index (1.99±0.10 - 18.89±0.21%) of the flour samples increased as the level of walnut flour substitution increased with few exceptions. In contrast, other proximate parameters, gelatinization temperature (75.6±0.48 - 82.4±0.58 oC), water absorption (2.60±0.11 - 3.35±0.35 g/g) and oil absorption (1.56±0.06 - 1.80±0.08 g/g) capacity of the flour samples decreased with few exceptions. Although ogi porridge made from ‘BY’ is more desirable than using other fortified flour formulations, ogi porridge made from ‘AZ’ was assigned the highest score for all the sensory attributes except appearance. Interestingly, ogi porridge prepared using maize ogi flour fortified with walnut flour and 100% maize ogi flour were generally acceptable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Postbiotics as an Immunomodulatory of the Immune Response against Brucellosis in Nellore Calves Immunized with S 19 Vaccine

Caroline Paes dos Santos, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, João Bosco Vilela Campos, Carolina Santos Pereira Cardoso Trindade, Talia Fernandes Silva, Emilly Rebeca Antunes Gonçalves, Filipe Martins Santos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento Ramos, Pedro Fernandéz Llario, Amanda Alves Rosa Taveira, Carina Elisei de Oliveira

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 52-61
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i430312

Background: Brucellosis is an important public health disease and a great problem in the cattle production.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory efficiency of a commercial postbiotic in Nellore calves immunized with the Brucella abortus S19 vaccine.

Methods: We used 40 calves negative for Brucella spp. organizated into four treatments during 15 days: InRum (Ingulbal Ruminant®); InPro (Ingulbal Protein®); RumPro (Ingulbal Ruminant® and Ingulbal Protein®); and Cont: control. Collections of whole blood and serum samples were performed at the beginning of the administration of postbiotic and at 15, 45, 75 and 105 days after start the experiment. At 15 days, all animals received the mandatory vaccine S19. In order to assess immunological parameters, the means of total white cells counts, total lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils, and total IgG antibodies were determined.

Results: It found a significative increase (P<0.05) of white cells counts and serum IgG levels in the three treatment groups throughout the experiment. Additionally, we observe a tendency not significative in a greater number of lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils counts in the treat calves.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the supplementation with postbiotic is a promising alternative to modulate both the cellular and humoral immune response of S19 vaccine against bovine brucellosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploitaton of the Functional Properties of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum as Probiotic using Soyabeans Flour as Vehicle

Abdulkadir Musliu, Muhammed Yusuf, Sulaimon Adebisi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 62-76
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i430313

Lactic acid bacteria produce a variety of antimicrobial compounds such as acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl on them as a natural competitive means to overcome other microorganism sharing the same niche. Seven different strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum were screened for their ability to produce enzymes and metabolites. They were also screened for their ability to withstand some physiological stress like acid tolerance, temperature, salt concentration and antibacterial activity. Leuconostoc mesenteroides S3 and Lactobacillus plantarum Yh1produced values significantly different to other five isolates and they were selected. These functional properties were exploited in the fermentation of soyabean in order to obtain a probiotic vehicle. The selected isolates were used as starter both singly and in consortium. This research work also finds out the suitability of soya beans flour as a vehicle for probiotic microorganisms (Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides). The cleaned, dried and roasted soya beans were grinded to flour. The soya beans flour was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides and there was mass increase in lactic acid counts in the fermented soya beans flour store at room temperature. All lactic acid fermented soya beans flour recorded increase at room temperature but slight reduction in number at refrigerator temperature from day 0 to day 14 of storage. Lactobacillus plantarum fermented soya beans flour (LPFSB) recorded increase from 5.9x105 (day 0) to 10.60x105cfu/g (day 14), while the L. plantarum stored at refrigeration temperature had 5.9x105cfu/g on (day 0) to 5.5x105cfu/g on day 14. The L. plantarum and consortium of both starters used were observed to have considerable increase in cell growth after storage, therefore this satisfies the criteria for good probiotic bacteria. Leuconostoc mesenteroides fermented soya beans slightly reduced in cell number at pH of 2 but others survived well at acidic pH and 10% bile. The cell number reduced from 4.8x106 (initial) to 4.2x106 (final). The pH of the intestine ranges from 2.5 to 3.5 and the starter culture used survive this pH and the bile product which shows greatly that they can serve as probiotic in the treatment of infection in gastrointestinal tract    .

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Quality of Potable Water Consumed in Cape Coast and Takoradi Metropolis, Ghana

Samuel Addo Akwetey, Ernest Oduro-Kwarteng, Priscilla Ocran, Kumi Nana Anokye, Allswell Donkor, Priscilla Abena Ankamaa Opare, Desmond Omane Acheampong, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 77-88
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i430314

Background: Bacterial contamination of potable water remains a global canker and has been reported to result in deaths from gastrointestinal infections. Treatment of gastrointestinal infections is becoming difficult due to antimicrobial resistance. This study sought to assess the bacteriological quality of potable water consumed in Cape Coast and Takoradi Metropolis of Ghana.

Methodology: Eighty-seven (87) samples of potable water were collected from various vicinities of Cape Coast (43) and Takoradi (44). The samples were analyzed for their bacterial loads using various laboratory bacteriological procedures and the resulting colonies were subjected to standard identification techniques. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST) was carried out to determine the susceptibility patterns of the various isolates.

Results: A total of 220 bacterial isolates were identified comprising 18 species, with Bacillus cereus. (13.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (8.5%), and Klebsiella sp. (10%), being predominant and Pseudomonas sp. (2.3%), Streptococcus sp. (1.8%), and Serratia sp. (0.5%) being less frequent.  Antimicrobial Sensitivity Testing (AST) revealed multiple antimicrobial-resistant bacteria including, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., and Klebsiella sp. The average HPC and TCC of the various samples ranged from 0.20 - 1.94 x 108 CFU/ml and 0.00 - 2.39 x 108 CFU/ml respectively.

Conclusion: Some potable water in Cape Coast and Takoradi metropolis including most sachet water sold on the streets were found to be highly contaminated with bacteria.