Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial Properties of Different Leaf Extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit

B. A. Erinle, A. O. Ajayi, O. T. Osuntokun

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 40-44
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i330304

Aim: Hyptis suaveolens is well known for its immense medicinal properties and are beneficial as folk medicine. The objective of the study is to investigate the efficacy of the leaves for it antimicrobial activity.

Material and Methods: The leaves of Hyptis suaveolens was  subjected to extraction process using n-hexane, ethanol and distilled water as solvents and the antimicrobial activity was analyzed against different bacterial strains viz.; Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Enterococcus faecalis by agar well diffusion method.

Results: Aqueous extracts showed inhibitory effect against the different tested bacteria organisms with variable zone of inhibitory range 6 -21 mm.

Conclusion: The aqueous extracts of Hyptis suaveolens exhibited the presence of highly effective bio-active compounds in these extracts. These can further be evaluated and characterize to improve upon what has been done to create a novel compound that can be useful for various medicinal purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Assessment on Stalk, Endocarp, Epicarp, Tip and Vascular Tissue of Different Varieties of Banana Fruit (Musa spp.)

R. R. Nrior, C. J. Ugboma, C. A. Nzurumike

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i330301

Aim: The aim of this study was to carry out microbiological assessment on Stalk, Endocarp, Epicarp, Tip and Vascular Tissue of Different Varieties of Banana fruit (Musa spp.) (Cavendish, Dwarf Cavendish, Red, Lady Finger and Grand Nain Banana).

Study Design: The study employs statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study: Three major markets - Oil Mill (OM), Fruit Garden (FG), Mile Three (MT), all located in the city of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. Sample collection lasted for a week and the analysis was carried out every day and it lasted for six months.

Methodology: A total of forty-five (45) banana (Cavendish, Dwarf Cavendish, Red, Lady Finger and Grand Nain Banana) fruit samples were collected for a period of three months from three different markets (Oil Mill, Fruit Garden and Mile Three Markets) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The collected samples were grouped into three (Unripe, Healthy-Looking and Spoiled) and were subjected to standard microbiological procedures which includes standard plate counts, biochemical and molecular identification of the isolates.

Results: A total of 124 isolates were isolated from the different sampled parts (Cut stalk, Tip, Endocarp, Vascular Tissue and Epicarp) of the banana fruit. Staphylococcus aureus count in the unripe sampled Banana fruits from Oil Mill market showed high prevalent rate in the Cut Stalk of the Cavendish Banana at 4.17±0.31x102 CFU/g followed by the Tips of the Grand Nain and Cavendish Banana at 4.03±0.21x102 CFU/gand 4.00±0.20x102 CFU/g, respectively. While the TCC in the Healthy-Looking sampled fruits from Fruit Garden showed more microbial load in the Epicarp of the Dwarf Cavendish Banana at 2.93±1.15x103 CFU/g followed by the Tip and Epicarp of the Grand Nain Banana at 2.70±0.82x103 CFU/g and 2.60±0.46x103 CFU/g. The total fungal count (TFC) in Healthy-Looking sampled Banana fruits showed high prevalent rate in Oil Mill market at 2.79x103 CFU/g > Mile Three market, 2.31x103 CFU/g > 1.35x103 CFU/g at Fruit Garden market. While the result of the total Staphylococcal count in the unripe sampled Banana fruits showed that Staphylococcus aureus was more prevalent in Creek Road market at 1.65x102 CFU/g > Mile One at 1.64x102 CFU/g and the least seen in Mile Three market at 1.50x102 CFU/g. The result of the Coliform count in the spoiled sampled Banana fruits showed that coliform was more prevalent in Mile One market at 2.14x103 CFU/g > 1.98x103 CFU/g in Fruit Garden market and less prevalent in Creek Road market at 1.75x103 CFU/g. The Grand Nain Banana had the most microbial load at 33.9% > Dwarf Cavendish Banana, 25% > Cavendish Banana, 16.9% > Lady Finger Banana, 14.5% > Red Banana at 9.7%. The study location with the most microbial load is the Oil Mill market at 21.23% > Mile One, 20.64% > Creek Road, 20.01% > Mile Three, 19.23% > Fruit Garden, 18.88%. 

Conclusion: Grand Nain banana variety has the highest microbial load thus consumption of it should be washed or cleansed thoroughly. Secondly, of the different parts sampled, Cut stalk of banana is associated with highest microbial load, therefore it should checked properly or cut off when peeling/during consumption, The high load of Staphylococcusaureus, Escherichiacoli and Bacillus is of great concern. These organisms associated with different parts and varieties of banana fruits (Musa spp.) in Port Harcourt Nigeria, poses serious threat to consumers. Prohibition of anthropogenic activities within the markets and farms should be encouraged in order to reduce the level of contamination of these fruits. Also, public awareness on safe and hygienic practices in the handling and distribution of Banana fruits from the farms to the markets should be encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Quality of Soybean Flour (Glycine max L. Merrill) as a Food Supplement for Infants Sold in Daloa

Kouassi Kra Athanase, Ouina Toualy Serge Thibaut, Voko Bi Rosin Don Rodrigue, Kouassi Kouassi Clément, Coulibaly Ibourahema, Konate Ibrahim

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i330302

The objective of this study is to assess the presence of harmful microorganisms and to characterize some physicochemical parameters in the soya flour sold in Daloa. To carry out the work, sixty (60) samples of soybean flour were collected by purchase in PMI (20), supermarkets (20) and in certain markets (20) made up of grains that will be transformed into flour according to the defined conditions. by ourselves. His samples will be transferred to the microbiology laboratory for analysis. A count to assess the microbiological quality was carried out. The assay of some chemical parameters and the determination of some physical parameters were performed. The different pH values ​​obtained are all alkaline. Microbiological analysis revealed compliance of average microbial loads of fungi (yeasts and molds) below 103 CFU / g and aerobic mesophilic bacteria below 105 CFU / g. On the other hand, the average microbial loads of total coliforms do not comply with the defined microbiological criteria. Furthermore, with regard to the potentially pathogenic germs in Bacillus cereus occurrences, there is no conformity of the average loads of the three types of flour. The defined criterion being 10 CFU / g. As for E. coli and S. aureus, only F1 flour complies with microbiological criteria. There is a presence of Salmonella in 60% of the samples of the F1 flour. Good practices should be observed in the processing of grains into flour in order to avoid possible contamination of the flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Presence and Virulence Potential of Aeromonas hydrophila in Selected Water Sources for Household Consumption in Makurdi, Benue State

Tersoo-Abiem Evelyn Mnguchivir, Ariahu Charles Chukwuma, Igyor Micheal Agba

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 31-39
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i330303

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila in selected drinking water sources in Makurdi. A total of 100 water samples (Tap, river, stream, well, pond and borehole water) were collected from different locations in Makurdi. Isolation and identification of the organism was performed using standard microbiological techniques. Further confirmation of the isolates as Aeromonas hydrophila was carried out using the Microbact 24E detection kit and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A. hydrophila was detected in 12 (12%) out of the 100 samples; 6.67%, 8.82%, 7.14%, 25%, 30% and 20%  of tap, well, borehole, river, pond and stream water samples respectively. The highest isolation rate of A. hydrophila (30%) was from pond water. All A. hydrophila isolated exhibited heamolysin, protease and lipase activity. The findings of this study revealed that treated and untreated drinking water sources in Makurdi are contaminated with potentially virulent A. hydrophila strains which may pose a health risk to consumers. Therefore, basic water treatment should be applied to drinking water to reduce public health threat posed by this finding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of PCR in Rapid Detection Group B Streptococcus in Pregnant Females in Al-Quwayiyah General Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

E. S. Khater, A. S. Abdel-Motaal

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i330305

Background: Group B streptococcus is one of the most common causes of severe neonatal infections.

Aim: To detect the prevalence of group B. Streptococcus and their antimicrobial susceptibility and to assess the role of PCR as a rapid method of its detection.

Place and Duration of the Study: A cross sectional and prospective cohort study was carried out from September 2019 to February 2020 in Gynaecology and Obstetrics OPD and inpatient units in Al- Quwayiyah General hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Methodology: Paired rectal/vaginal specimens were collected from 540 pregnant females with gestational age 35 or more, Each swab was inoculated into selective medium, Todd Hewitt, One swab is streaked onto blood agar plates incubated in 5% CO2 for 24h at 36ºC. β-hemolytic colonies growth is identified by Gram’s stain, colony morphology and CAMP test. The confirmation and antimicrobial susceptibility were done by Vitek II machine, The second swab was used for PCR to identify atr gene.

Results: Out of 540 pregnant women 87 (16.1%) were colonized with GBS isolates. The positive GBS women aged 25 (22-34) and negative GBS women aged 23 (24-35) with no statistical difference. Patients aged more than 35 years old has the higher rate of positive GBS, 46.2%. No significant association detected between GBS and gestational age at delivery, antenatal visits, BMI and gravidity. The GBS strains isolated from pregnant women was 100% susceptible to linezolid and vancomycin followed by ampicillin (93.1%) and tobramicin (83.9%) then gentamicin (81.6%) and levofloxacin(78.2%) and showed least antibiotic susceptibility to erythromycin (26.4%). The PCR was positive in 145 (26.9%). Using culture as gold method, PCR sensitivity was 100% (95% CI: 91.62-100), while specificity was 83.2% (95% CI: 82.61-91.02). Negative and positive predictive values were 100% and 61% respectively. Kappa between the two methods was 0.71, which indicate major agreement.

Conclusion: The GBS prevalence among the pregnant females in Al Quwayiyah General Hospital was 16.1%. Detection of GBS using new PCR technique was found to have high sensitivity and faster results, allowing efficient management of GBS and reduction in newborn morbidity and mortality however the cost is high for some laboratories. Further studies should be assessed to be both low cost and accurate rapid screening.

Open Access Original Research Article

Susceptibility Pattern of Pathogens Causing Blood Stream Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Two-year Retrospective Study from Southern Nigeria

Bassey Ewa Ekeng, Ubleni Ettah Emanghe, Bernard Ekpan Monjol, Anthony Achizie Iwuafor, Ernest Afu Ochang, Simon Edward Ereh, Bode Akashie Abraka

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 53-60
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i330306

Aim: Bloodstream infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of causative microorganisms varies from one geographical region to another. This study was aimed at determining the etiological agents prevalent in our environment and their susceptibility profile.

Study design: This is a retrospective study carried out at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria.

Methodology: Blood culture results of patients documented over a two-year period were retrieved and analyzed. Blood culture positive isolates were detected using conventional method and Oxoid signal blood culture systems. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests were carried out by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (CoNS) was detected by disk diffusion method using 30 µg cefoxitin disk. ESBL production was detected by phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test (PCDDT) and the double disc synergy test (DDST).

Results: A total of 413 blood culture antimicrobial susceptibility test results were analyzed, of which 116 (28.09%) were identified as culture positive. Sixty-nine (59%) of the positive isolates were from female patients. Out of 116 positive cultures, 58.62% (68/116) were Gram positive organisms, 40.52% (47/116) were Gram negative organisms, non albicans Candida accounted for 0.86% (1/116).  Staphylococcus aureus (n=41, 35.3%) was the predominant isolate and showed high sensitivity to levofloxacin (100%), Linezolid (100%) and Amikacin (100%). Twelve isolates of S. aureus were methicillin resistant, while 1 isolate was inducible clindamycin resistant. Of the 116 isolates identified in this study, forty-three (43) were multidrug resistant with highest number of multidrug resistant isolates from Staphylococcus aureus (n=20). 21.28% (n=10) of the Gram-negative isolates were positive for extended spectrum beta lactamases.

Conclusion: A high rate of antimicrobial resistance is observed among microorganisms causing blood stream infections. This emphasizes the need for antimicrobial sensitivity testing in the management of blood stream infections.

Open Access Review Article

Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in Periodontal Disease

Adenike O. Oladokun, Olanrewaju I. Opeodu, Ahmed O. Lawal, Mofolusho O. Falade

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 61-72
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i330307

This review is aimed at elucidating the role of Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in the aetiology of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease results from localised inflammation of the periodontium due to plaque accumulation and if left untreated can lead to loss of teeth. Although dental plaque is composed mainly of bacteria, Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax, both of which are protozoan parasites have been found in plaque and implicated in periodontal disease. E. gingivalis is an amoeba associated with poor oral hygiene while T. tenax is a pyriform flagellate that lives in the tartar around the teeth, cavities of carious teeth, necrotic mucosal cells in the gingival margins of gums and pus pockets in tonsillar follicles. These parasites are transmitted by close contact, saliva, droplet spray and kissing or use of contaminated dishes, cups, spoons and forks as well as drinking water. Age, gender, socio-economic status, dental condition and gingival pathology have been reported to influence the presence of the parasite. Genetic variability and stress are also some of the factors that determine the transition of the periodontium at some gingival sites from healthy to inflame. Researchers have observed that the prevalence and severity of periodontitis is higher in developing countries than developed countries. But with good oral hygiene, regular scaling and polishing and use of antiparasitic drugs, periodontal disease caused by these parasites can be prevented and periodontal health restored.