Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality of Well Water Samples in Ido Community, Nigeria

N. P. Akani, L. O. Amadi, I. M. Amafina

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i130284

This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of well water samples in Ido community. Thirty water samples were collected from five different wells ( six samples from each well) and subjected to standard microbiological and physicochemical analysis. All physicochemical properties showed difference (p<0.05) in all the wells analyzed except temperature and turbidity. Temperature ranged between 25.3±3.50C and 26±2.350C; pH, 6.3±0.7 and 6.9±0.3; electrical conductivity, 127.6±1.9 and 157.8±7.7μs/cm; total suspended solids, 25.2±8.9 and 53.2±1.8mg/l; turbidity, 0.15±0.7 and 1.20±1.4NTU; dissolved oxygen, 4.40±2.8 and 5.35±2.1 mg/l; Biological Oxygen Demand, 9.40±2.8 and15.4±2.8mg/l; Chemical Oxygen Demand, 177.2±1.6 and 260.3±1.6mg/l; chloride, 59.8±8.5 and 101.2±2.6mg/l and total hardness, 246.6±1.9 and 395.6±2.7mg/l. All values fell within WHO standards except Chemical Oxygen Demand (WHO Standard 40mg/l) and total hardness (WHO Standard 100mg/l). Results of microbial population did not show any difference (p>0.05) across the wells. However, Total Heterotrophic Bacteria ranged from  2.15±0.91×104 to 5.3±0.86×104cfu/ml; total coliform, 3.00±0.77×104 to 6.18±0.73×104 cfu/ml; Total feacal coliform, 2.61±0.71×104 to 4.39±0.76×104 cfu/ml; Total vibrio count, 2.68±0.81× 103  to 4.4±0.86×103 cfu/ml; Total salmonella shigella count. 2.02±0.84×103 to 4.8±0.95×103 cfu/ml. Total coliform bacteria ranged from 220 to > 1600 coliform MPN index /100ml-1, while thermo tolerant coliform bacteria ranged from 220 to  1600 coliform MPN index /100ml-1.  A total of forty bacterial isolates belonging to ten genera were identified. They include species of Bacillus 22 (26.4%), Staphylococcus 14(16.8%), Vibrio 13(15.7%), Serratia 6(7.3%), Enterobacter 6(7.3%), Chromobacterium 4(4.8%), Salmonella 4 (4.9%), Shigella 4(4.8%) and E. coli 4(4.8%).  This  result highlights the fact that  well water in Ido community are not safe microbiologically for drinking without additional treatment such as boiling or disinfection and this could lead to outbreak of water borne diseases. Good and proper environmental and personal hygiene is advocate especially by the users of those wells to prevent their contamination with bacterial pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serosurvey of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) in Cattle in Livestock Areas of Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa

Adjogoua Edgard Valery, Diaha-Kouame Claude Aimée, Diane Kouao Maxime, Kouassi Konan Adjoua Rose Marie Clémence, Dosso Mireille

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i130287

Background: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is an arbovirus transmitted by Ixodid ticks and causes a highly pathogenic disease called Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever with a mortality rate of up to 50% in humans.

Methods: From January to December 2019, tick and blood samples were taken from seven cattle farms located in the towns of Korhogo, Bondoukou, Man and Bouaflé. In each of the farms, samples were taken from twenty cattle. These tick and blood samples were sent to the national reference laboratory of the Department of Epidemic Viruses of the Pasteur Institute of Côte d'Ivoire for diagnosis of CCHFV as part of the surveillance of haemorrhagic fever viruses in Côte d'Ivoire. Molecular detection of the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fevervirus in ticks was performed by real-time PCR. For the serological analysis, the ELISA was used for the detection of antibodies to CCHFV (IgM and IgG).

Results: The study allowed the identification of 411 ticks divided into three genera Amblyomma, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus. The predominant species were Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with (47.4%) and Amblyomma variegatum with (42.8%). No ticks gave positive results for the research of the CCHFV.Serological analysis showed that all 140 blood samples were IgM negative and 53.57% were IgG positive. Cattle from Bouaflé (90%) and Korhogo (70%) showed a higher seroprevalence than cattle from other regions. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between female bovines (54.1%) and male bovines (52.5%) (P>0.05). There is an association between age and anti-CCHF IgG positivity (P≤0.05), as cattle less than 3 years old (59.3%) showed a higher seroprevalence.

Conclusion: CCHFV serological tests have been detected in cattle, one of the livestock known to play a role in the amplification of CCHFV. Our results demonstrate that the prevalence of CCHFV is high in livestock areas of Côte d'Ivoire and suggest that surveillance for CCHFV should be established.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological and Parasitological Assessment of Water use in Selected Abattoirs in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria

Eze Chinwe Nwadiuto, Ihua Nnenna, Ijewere Blessing Ofureb

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 19-25
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i130288

In the abattoir, large amount of water is being used in processing operations; and this produces huge amount of wastewater which empty into the surrounding water bodies. The cross-sectional study followed the conventional microbiological techniques of macroscopy, microscopy, isolation, and identification to assess the bacteriological and parasitological examination of water sources in selected abattoirs in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. The result of microbial population showed Total Coliform ranging from 5 x 101cfu/ml – 2.80 x 102cfu/ml and Faecal Coliform bacteria of 2.80 x 101 cfu/ml -1.85 x 102 cfu/ml. Total Heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 7.8 x101cfu/ml to 4.2 x102cfu/ml. The mean microbial counts; 4.86 x101 cfu/ml Fecal Coliform, 9.65 x 101cfu/ml Total Coliform and 1.82 x 102cfu/ml Heterotrophic Count. The isolates identified were Klebsiella spp, Shigella spp., Salmonella typhymurium, E. coli, Proteus spp., Salmonella paratyphi, Vibrio cholera. Nkpor village abattoir recorded highest occurrence of bacteria isolate with a total of 50(22.03%) followed by Iwofe 48(21.15%). Water sample from ponds had a higher parasitic contamination while samples from the borehole were free from parasitic infestation. Water samples for parasitological assessment were filtered and examined for parasitic organism using standard methods. Four different parasites were identified in the study, they include Ascaris lumbricoides (32.5%), Entamoeba histolytica (22.5%), Giardia lamblia (17.5%) and the least Taenia spp (7.5%). Nkpor-village abattoir had the highest level of contamination with (30.0%) parasite occurrence, followed by Mgboshimini abattoir (15.0%). The use of unsafe water for meat processing by butchers, portends a serious public health risk to consumers who purchase the meat, from these abattoirs. Therefore, government should endeavour to make borehole water available to all the abattoirs in Port Harcourt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Antioxidant Activity of 20 Kinds of Mushrooms from Southwest of China

Dong-Hao He, Zhao-Hui Yu, Yi Huang

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i130289

The ethanol and water extracts of 20 kinds of mushrooms from Sichuan Province, Southwest of China, were investigated for their antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The results showed the ethanol extract of Serpula lacrymans, Daldinia concentrica, and Scleroderma verrucosum had well DPPH free radical scavenging activities 91.33%, 79.76% and 62.82%, respectively. Besides, the water extracts of Serpula lacrymans, Armillaria luteo-virens, and Lentinus edodes also possessed pretty high DPPH free radical scavenging activity were 95.59%, 88.76% and 86.93%, respectively. Based on the above comparison, the EC50 and total phenolic content of the ethanol extracts of Serpula lacrymans, Daldinia concentrica, and Scleroderma verrucosum were also measured. Their EC50 and total phenolic content valued of 17.87mg·mL-1, 11.19mg·mL-1 and 35.01mg·mL-1, as well as 0.0769μg·L-1, 0.0673μg·L-1 and 0.0545μg·L-1, respectively. The results showed there was a correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Besides, the reaction time of the DPPH test affected the free radical scavenging, which reflected the difference of the extract component would impact the test method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antimicrobial activity and Genotoxic Potential of Capparis spinosa (L.) Plant Extracts

Ghaleb M. Adwan, Ghadeer Ibrahim Omar

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 48-57
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i130297

Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the genotoxic effect of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stem and leaf of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) plant on Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ATCC 6538P, clinical isolate of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) ATCC 90028.

Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined using microbroth dilution method, while the genotoxic effect was investigated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR.

Results: The MIC values of both ethanolic and aqueous leaf and stem extracts of C. spinosa plant had a range 6.25 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml. In addition, it was found that ethanolic extract more effective than aqueous extract. The genotoxic activity of aqueous leaf extract, showed changes in both Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR profiles of E. coli strain treated with extract compared to untreated (negative) control. These changes included an alteration in the intensity, absence or appearance of new amplified fragments.

Conclusions: Results of this study strongly show the genotoxic effect of aqueous leaf extract from C. spinosa plant on E. coli. The findings draw awareness to the possible toxic effect use of C. spinosa plant in traditional medicine and point out the capability of using C. spinosa to treat bacterial or fungal infections. More studies are needed to detect the exact ingredients of this plant as well as the mechanisms responsible for genotoxicity. Further in vivo genotoxicity studies are recommended to ensure and to evaluate the safety of using plants for therapeutic purposes. In addition, results of this study showed that molecular fingerprinting based on ERIC-PCR can be used to evaluate the genotoxic effect in the model bacterial species E. coli.

Open Access Original Research Article

murA, uhpT, glpT and fosA Genes of Fosfomycin Resistance in Multi-drug Resistant E. coli Isolated from Hematological Malignancies' Patients with Blood Stream Infection

Yasmin Nabiel, Ghada Barakat

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 58-68
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i130298

Aim: To estimate the prevalence of murA, uhpT, glpT and fosA resistance genes of fosfomycin in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from patients suffering from hematological malignancies with on top blood stream infection together with correlating this distribution to the rate of expression of AmpC, ESBLs and MBLs in such isolates.

Methods: 205 blood samples collected from patients with underlying hematological malignancies were cultured to isolate E. coli strains. Multidrug resistance was detected. PCR was done to determine fosfomycin resistance genes; murA, uhpT, glpT and fosA.

Results: A total of 83 (40.5%) E. coli strains were isolated from blood samples. 58 (69.9%) were found to be multidrug resistant. AmpC beta-lactamase production was deduced in 15 (25.8%) isolates. 43 (74.1%) isolates were ESBLs producers whereas 9 (15.5%) were MBL class A carbapene-mases producers. Depending on PCR results, murA gene was detected in one isolate (1.7%), uhpT gene in 3 (5.2%), glpT gene in 4 (6.9%) whereas fosA gene was found in 7 E. coli strains (12.1%).

Conclusion: Fosfomycin is a promising antibiotic with limited degree of prevalence of its resistant genes; however disseminating resistance might increase in multidrug resistant E. coli

Open Access Review Article

A Review of the Innate Immune Evasion Mechanisms and Status of Vaccine Development of Klebsiella pneumonia

Fredrick Ruo Tiria, Lillian Musila

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 33-47
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i130290

Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is a human pathogen causing a broad spectrum of diseases such as urinary tract infections (UTI), pneumonia, pyogenic liver abscess, bloodstream infections, and sepsis. Neonate, geriatric and immunocompromised individuals are the most vulnerable to KP infections. The success of KP as an infectious agent is due to the evolution of various mechanisms to evade the host's immune system. These diverse mechanisms have led to the dominance of KP infections in community settings where hypervirulent strains predominate and in hospital-acquired infections where multidrug-resistant strains predominate. KP infections in the past decades have been increasingly associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant and hypervirulent strains capable of evading both the internal immune defense mechanisms and external antimicrobial agents. The pharmaceutical industries have very few and often expensive new antibiotics in the pipeline, offering little hope for antibiotic therapy. The development of new therapeutic strategies such as polyvalent, biconjugate vaccines that can provide protective immunity, especially against vulnerable populations, can mitigate the effects of KP infections. In this review, we discuss the virulence mechanisms of KP and how it evades the innate host immunity, and the interplay between the virulence and immune evasion strategies. The progress in the search for a vaccine to protect against KP infections will also be highlighted.