Open Access Original Research Article
Clostridium septicum is the causative agent of the acute fetal disease braxy and gas gangrene with major economic losses in the dairy industry. Accurate and rapid detection is great importance in this regard. Vaccination is an effective process for protection against C. septicum infection. It is necessary to identify and evaluate toxigenic Iranian isolates to produce a vaccine. This study aimed to detect Iranian isolates and evaluate toxigenic isolates as candidates for vaccine production. To this end, a total of 17 samples of animals, clinically suspected to braxy and malignant edema, were obtained. All samples were then cultured on media and microbiological and biochemical tests were performed on the colonies. The test results were confirmed by PCR amplification of the alpha-toxin gene. The toxigenic isolates were then evaluated using MLD. The experimental vaccine was produced and evaluated according to the British Pharmacopoeia Standard. According to the results, out of 17 samples, 15 samples were considered C. septicum. All samples were confirmed by PCR amplification. The most toxigenic isolate was used for experimental vaccine production. The result was successful. The Iranian isolate could be, therefore, used for vaccine production although further studies should be conducted in this regard.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: This study was carried out to determine the seasonal variety on physico-chemical and bacteriological evaluation of Borehole waters.
Place and Duration of Study: 10 selected borehole tanks in 5 different towns were collected from five towns from (ORS) Orumba South L. G. A; (Umunze, Onneh, Nawfija, Isulo and Ezira) in Anambra State, with one hundred and twenty samples each in both dry season (December, January, February) as January (peak of dry season) and rainy season (May, June, July) as June (peak of rainy season) within 2018.
Methodology: A total of one hundred and twenty water samples were analyzed. (1) ml of water sample was added to 10 ml single strength of the Lactose fermentation broth and serially diluted. The isolated bacterial isolates were identified using their morphological characteristics, biochemical tests, microscopical and molecular characteristics. The DNA was extracted from the identified isolates and analyzed by 16S rRNA. The bacteria isolated from the studied water samples were identified to be Bacillus subtilis (BTC), Escherichia coli (RSS), klebsiella aerogenes (TSS) and staphylococcus aureus (GY), PC – Providencia stuartii, BCD – Bacillus toyonensis, FY- Bacillus spp and ANT – Proteus spp. Frequency rate of occurrence in percentage for the isolates in dry and rainy seasons in ORS L. G. A were determined and for removal of all the isolates were within the WHO limit of 0.08ct (mg.min L-1) by the use of chlorine solution. Confirmatory profile on bacteriological in chlorine treated borehole water samples was determined.
Results: The highest TCC was recorded for sample 10 which was 27 MPN/100ml estimated during rainy season against (TCC) recorded for samples 10 which was 22 MPN/100ml during dry season. Out of eight isolates, Escherichia coli had the highest rate frequency of occurrence of 70% in rainy season against dry season. All the isolates 1 to 8 range from (0.01ct) (mg.min L-1) to (0.06ct (mg.min L-1) all the values were within the WHO recommended limit for water purity. The confirmatory test on sample locations form ORS 1 to ORS 10 for total coliform count in chlorine treated borehole water samples by most probable number estimation revealed that all the samples were within the WHO permissible limit of 0.00MPN/100ml.
Conclusions: Chlorine solution may have proven to be the cheaper and better solution for achieving water purity in boreholes water.
Open Access Review Article
Campylobacter is the most frequent bacteria implicated in acute gastroenteritis in the industrialized world and is considered as a major public health problem. The aim of this review is to improve our knowledge on the bacteriological profile of Campylobacter isolated from pigs. Porks, beef also represent sources of infection with these microorganisms. Campylobacter is a bacterium comprising seventeen species, including Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter fetus. C. coli is the most common Campylobacter species recovered from pigs. The prevalence (46%, 52%, 75%) varies from one country to another, from the collection site. C. jejuni and C. coli grows best in a low oxygen or microaerophilic environment. The virulence markers varies among different sources of the isolates. The majority of genes were found at high levels in Campylobacter spp. isolated from pork meat (csrA, sodB, cdtB, and racR). Moreover, this review revealed virulent properties of Campylobacter isolated from swine products and high resistance rates to Tetracycline (68%), Erythromycin (61%), which may represent difficulties in campylobacteriosis treatment. Fluoroquinolones resistance (2.2%, 7%, 11%,100%) varies according to the country and the source of the sample. It will be wise to insist on hygenic measures as a solution to limit the incidence of Campylobacter and prevent dissemination of pathogens in animals (chicken, pork and beef) within slaughter-houses/ killings Cameroon.
Open Access Review Article
Clostridia are Gram-positive anaerobic, spore-forming rods, found in soil, water as well as gastro-intestinal tract of human and animals worldwide. Clostridial infections are among the most prevalent diseases in Iran. Clostridium causes botulism, tetanus, food poisoning, wound infections, enterotoxaemia, gas gangrene, necrotic enteritis, pseudomembranous colitis, blackleg and black disease. Clostridium also causes several diseases affecting the livestock and poultry industries throughout the world. Vaccination against clostridial infection is effective in immunization of domestic animals and birds. This review discusses clostridial infection and the development of vaccines against their infection in Iran. The last reported outbreaks of blackleg, black disease and enterotoxaemia occurred years ago, so these vaccines have been produced since the 1960s using traditional and conventional methods. In recent years, molecular biology methods have been developed and applied to the identification of clostridial diseases among animals. In this study, molecular cloning strategies for the major toxins of Clostridium species, for development of recombinant vaccines, were designed and evaluated. In vivo studies indicate that the recombinant vaccines will increase immunity against disease in laboratory animals. These experimental vaccines can thus be used in future pilot studies in Iran. This review article presents current knowledge regarding C. perfringens, C. novyi, C. septicum and C. chauvoei in the veterinary industry in Iran.