Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Assessment the Antifungal Activity of Dissotis multiflora (Melastomataceae) and Paullinia pinnata (Sapindaceae) Leaves Extracts on Candida Species - Experimental Study

Albert Ngandeu, Hortense Gonsu, Alian Afagnigni, Steve Voundi, Anicette Chafa, William Abange, Patrick Betote, Michel Noubom, Maximilienne Nyegue

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i330162

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antifungal activity of Dissotis multiflora (Melastomataceae) and Paullinia pinnata (Sapindaceae) leaves extracts on six species of Candida.

Study Design: This study was an experimental study.

Duration and Place of the Study: Between March to August 2017, Department of Microbiology, Microbiology laboratory, University of Yaoundé I. Bacteriology laboratory, Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (YUHC).

Methodology: The fungal strains were isolated from vaginal swab women at the sampling unit of the YUHC. The identification test blastosis and gallery method allowed to differentiate Candida albicans ATCC37037 to Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida haemolinii and Candida lipolytica in the Bacteriology laboratory of the YUHC. C. albicans ATCC 37037 came from the Microbiology laboratory of the University of Yaoundé I. The antifungal activity of extracts was carried out on agar medium using (aromatogram) and microdilution method. The effect of the combination of methanolic fractions were assess by the chessboard method.

Results: Phytochemical analysis of gude extracts of D. multiflora and P. pinnata revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as phenols, tannins, anthraquinones, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and flavonoids in both extracts. In general, all of six fungal strains were susceptible to different extracts and fractions with inhibition diameters ranging from 10.33 mm for methanolic fraction of D. multiflorao C. parapsilosis to 19 mm for the same fraction on C. haemolinii).

Both the MICs and the MFCs of actives extracts ranged respectively from 0,78 to 12,5 mg / ml and 1,56 to 25 mg/ml, the majority being fungicidal. The combinations showed significant antifungal activity compared to those of the fractions taken individually, especially with MICs reductions of the order to 75%.

Conclusion: The antimicrobial activities of the molecules present in our two extracts could justify their use in traditional medicine in the treatment of candidiasis.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Efficacy of Posaconazole (POS) against Voriconazole Resistant (VCZ-R) Aspergillus flavus in an Inhalational Neutropenic Murine Model of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

Suganthini Krishnan Natesan, Jessica L. Cutright

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i330163

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection in patients with cancer. Recent studies have reported that non-fumigatus Aspergillus spp., including Aspergillus flavus, are emerging as predominant pathogens in various transplant and cancer centers in the USA and around the world. Clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus species showing reduced susceptibility to VCZ have been reported. Mortality, despite therapy, remains high, and drug resistance might partly account for treatment failures. In this in vivo study, the virulence of a VCZ-R cyp51A mutant of A. flavus and the efficacy of POS against this mutant were evaluated using a neutropenic inhalational murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. VCZ-R A. flavus mutant was virulent in vivo, and had similar infectivity as the VCZ-S parent. Posaconazole had superior activity to that of VCZ in reducing fungal burden (p <0.05) and mortality (p <0.05) in this experimental model of VCZ-R A. flavus murine infection. This study demonstrated that POS may be a viable option for certain strains of VCZ-R A. flavus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-activities of Tetracycline and Algae Food Supplement Algo-Bio® on Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Resistance Isolated from Piglet’s Intestinal Flora

Amine Naty Tadiogo Kone, Baguy Mohamed Ouattara, Bertin Tiekoura, Fernique Kouadio Konan, Eugène Koffi, Innocent Kouamé Kouadio, Adjéhi Dadie, Nathalie Kouadio Guessennd

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i330164

Aims: This study aimed at evaluating the effect of Algo-Bio® use on Escherichia coli resistance strains isolated from piglets intestinal flora.

Study Design: Bacteriological study.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of the National Reference Center for antibiotics at Institute Pasteur Côte d’Ivoire, between March 2018 and June 2018.

Methodology: A breeding of three batches of two piglets was carried out, then treatments with tetracycline and Algo-Bio® were administered to them. Enterobacteria was isolated on Mac Conkey medium added up with tetracycline and resistance rates were determined. Escherichia coli resistant strains have been identified and antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar.

Results: Enterobacteria resistance rates increased ranging from 18.4% (D0) to 81.5% (D4) to tetracycline-treated piglets and respectively from 25.7% (D0) to 29% (D4) and from 22.3% (D0) to 24.5% (D4), in control piglets and those treated with Algo-Bio®. Antibiotic susceptibility test of Escherichia coli strains isolated from piglets treated with tetracycline showed high resistance to ceftazidime (83.3%), amoxicillin (76.9%) and tetracycline (92.3%) with 39.4% strains producing ESBL, 23.7% producing PHL and 5.2% of producing CHP on D4. Escherichia coli strains isolated from control piglets and Algo-Bio® treated piglets revealed a decrease of ESBL respectively from 17.6% (D0) to 13.7% (D4) and from 12.5% ​​(D0) to 6.4% (D4).

Conclusion: The study showed that the use of Algo-Bio® does not induce an evolution of antimicrobial resistance in Microbiota strains and consequently this dietary supplement can be used as a good alternative to antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimycotic Potential of Alum on Postharvest Deterioration of Tomato

Lawrence O. Amadi, Eunice J. Udoh, Rebecca U. Thompson, Ruth G. Benjamin, Felicia W. Nmom

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i330165

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most economically attractive and widely consumed vegetables globally. Their high water content, perishability, transport and poor storage system predisposes them to spoilage by a broad spectrum of mycoflora resulting in huge postharvest losses. This study investigates antimycotic potential of alum on postharvest deterioration of tomato. Composite samples of deteriorating tomatoes were subjected to standard mycological analysis from which total fungal colony counts obtained ranged from 1.64x106-5.70x109 CFU/g, and the following species were identified; Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp, Rhizopus stolonifer, Geotrichum candidium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vitro antimycotic activity of alum (1% (w/v) concentration) was determined on some of the isolates by agar well method (AWM) and diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) measured using a metre rule. G. candidum had the highest DIZ (9.0mm (29.0%) followed by A. niger (8.0 mm (25.8%) and 7.0mm (⁓ 22.6%) for Fusarium and Penicillium species respectively. R. stolonifer showed no inhibition or zero. pH values increased from 4.35-4.52 whereas TTA values decreased from 0.13-0.07 within 2days of analysis. However, these results indicate that treatment of postharvest deteriorating tomatoes with alum prior to consumption would enhance food safety as some of these fungi are known to be spoilage, toxigenic or opportunistic pathogens. So, their presence raises concern on storability as well as public health risks associated with consumption of these fruits. Therefore, production of tomato requires an integrated and multidisciplinary research approach not only to reduce economic loss but also create consumers’ awareness on potential public health hazards of consuming relatively cheaper and pathogen contaminated deteriorating tomatoes.    

Open Access Original Research Article

Community- based Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Pastoralist Communities of North-Eastern Uganda

Guma Isaac, Emuron John Robert, Namugambe Swabrah, Nabirye Gloria, Philip Denis Okungura, Paul Oboth, Jacob S. Iramiot, Rebecca Nekaka

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i330166

Background: Given the global urgency to improve tuberculosis (TB) case detection, a renewed interest in active case finding (ACF) has risen. Missed TB cases pose a serious threat as they continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. We aimed to assess the feasibility of community based ACF for TB among people living in a pastoralist community in Uganda and determine its impact on case detection and treatment uptake.

Methods: Between April and May 2019, four third year medical and nursing students placed at Moroto Regional Referral for community orientation worked together with community health workers to conduct a door-to-door survey for TB in pastoralist communities of Nadunget Sub County, Moroto district. The community health workers and the Medical/Nursing students performed symptom screening, collected sputum and facilitated specimen transport to the laboratory. Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay was performed at the regional referral Hospital for all sputum samples. The community health workers were tasked to follow up on all those clients whose samples turned out to be positive so that they could start treatment as soon as possible. All presumptive cases with negative sputum results were referred to the TB clinic for further evaluation.

Results: In one month, we screened 385 individuals and identified 143 aged above 15 years with symptoms suggestive of TB. Among the presumptive cases, 132 (92%) reported a cough of more than two weeks and we were able to obtain sputum samples from 84(58.7%) participants. We diagnosed 11, including 8 bacteriologically confirmed TB cases using Gene Xpert and there was no multidrug resistant case identified. The median time from sputum collection to notification of the positive result was 3 days. All the positive cases were followed up and initiated on treatment.

Conclusion: The findings from our study suggest that in a pastoralist community, ACF for TB using a sensitive symptom screen followed by Gene Xpert contributed to improved case detection of TB, shortening the turnaround time hence timely initiation of patients on TB treatment.