Open Access Original Research Article

Compliance Monitoring of Microbiological and Physicochemical Parameters of Abattoirs’ Effluents Discharged into Water Bodies in Owerri, Nigeria

Constance O. Egesi, Victor Ezebuiro, Anthony C. Ekeleme, Charles E. Obiukwu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i630147

Aims: To assess the quality of abattoir effluents discharged into water bodies in Owerri Municipal, Nigeria using microbiological and physicochemical approaches.

Study Design:  The study employed microbiological and physicochemical parameters to determine effluent and water quality.

Place and Duration of Study: Abattoirs in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, between September 2014 and February 2016.

Methodology: Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on three abattoir effluents and their receiving water bodies. Counts of total heterotrophic bacteria, total coliform and faecal coliform, Vibrio, Salmonella and Shigella were carried using the plate count method.

Results: The bacterial isolates in the various samples included members of the genera Bacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Listeria, Micrococcus, Proteus, Salmonella, Serratia, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Vibrio. The order of increasing effluent’s total coliform and faecal counts within the different abattoirs are given as Egbu abattoir > Amakohia Ikeduru abattoir > Ahiara abattoir. For the receiving streams, the order was as follows, for the total coliform count: Egbu abattoir > Ahiara abattoir > Amakohia Ikeduru abattoir while for faecal coliform: Egbu abattoir > Amakohia Ikeduru abattoir > Ahiara abattoir. About 85.7% and 42.9% of the total bacterial isolates were found in the Egbu abattoir effluent and receiving the stream, respectively. Ahiara abattoir’s effluent had 66.7% of the bacteria while its receiving stream had 23.8%. Over 57% of the total bacterial isolates were distributed in the Amakohia Ikeduru abattoir with 33.3% for its receiving stream.

Conclusion: This study revealed that pathogenic bacteria from abattoir were constantly discharged into receiving streams, thereby presenting serious health risks. The health status of residents of Owerri who have access to these water bodies should be studied to determine the health implications of such unregulated practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Physicochemical and Bacteriological Parameters of Borehole and Hand Dug Well Water in Michika and Environs, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Priscilla Alexander, I. B. Bwatanglang, Juth Daniel

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i630148

Physicochemical and Bacteriological Parameters of Borehole and Hand dug well water of Michika town in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria and environs were assessed to determine their suitability or otherwise for drinking and domestic purposes. Ten (10) water samples, five each from boreholes and hand-dug wells, from five selected areas in Michika town, were collected during the months of January and February 2018. The water samples which are extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes, were randomly collected and the results were compared with WHO and NAFDAC standards guidelines for drinking water. These samples were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, TDS, Turbidity, hardness), heavy metals, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliform counts. The results of the investigation revealed that the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters falls within the maximum permissible limits of NAFDAC and WHO guidelines for drinking water. The physicochemical concentrations were higher in borehole water than in hand dug well water; Lead and Cadmium were not detected in all the samples. All the water samples were free from feacal contamination except in Barikin Dlaka hand dug well which contained 0.05 ± 0.001 MPN/100 ml total coliform count which is below the WHO/NAFDAC maximum permissible levels. The suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes indicated that the water samples were within the standards prescribed for potable water. However, there is need for routine checks to ascertain the suitability or otherwise of these water sources so as to forestall outbreak of water born diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Compliance Assessment of Imported Frozen Fishes and Local Fresh Chilled Fishes Marketed in Northern Benin (West Africa)

A. Belco Latifou, I. Imorou Toko, P. U. Tougan, L. Djibril, A. I. Gouda, E. Y. Attakpa, A. Chikou

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i630149

Since the food safety and the foodborne diseases are becoming a main health concern in developing countries, the aim of this study is to determine, in accordance with the specific international standards, the compliance of the main frozen imported fish and fresh chilled fishes marketed and consumed in Northern Benin. From December 18 to March 5, 2019, the microbiological quality of the two main imported frozen fish (Scomber scombrus and Trachurus trachurus) and the two main freshwater fish locally produced (Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus) and marketed in Benin were analysed in accordance with ISO standards specific to each germ counted as Colony-Forming Units (CFU). The Mesophilic aerobic flora and fecal coliforms loads in fresh chilled fishes (256,577 and 349.6 CFU, respectively) are significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the frozen fish (143,620 and 157.0 CFU, respectively) marketed in the northern Benin. T. trachurus seems more contaminated (p<0.01) by these germs than S. scombrus, and O. niloticus showed significantly higher loads (p<0.01) of these bacteria than the C. gariepinus. No salmonella colony was observed in all the samples, and in the fresh and frozen fish, Staphylococcus aureus (11.27 and  10.77 CFU, respectively) and Sulfite-Reducing Anaerobes (0.38 and  0.38 CFU, respectively) loads showed no significant differences (p>0,05) both between origin and between species. However,  the microbiological quality of all fish both imported frozen  fishes and fresh fishes analysed during this study have not comply with the requirements of the standard AFNOR (2000) specific to frozen fish and fresh chilled fish. They are so classified as “unsatisfactory hygienic” due to their very high fecal coliforms loads. It would therefore be interesting to raise awareness among stakeholders in the marketing system for fish products on good hygiene practices and the HACCP approach. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Susceptibility Analysis of Gram Negative Pathogens in Super Specialty Tertiary Care Centers, Pune in India from January 2018- January 2019

Kishor Babaji Satras

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i630150

Background and Objective: The encumbrance of antimicrobial resistance worldwide is substantive and likely to rise without any appropriate treatment which has enhanced the urge for the development of either new antibiotics or adjuvant therapy with antibiotics. Thus, we aimed to study a comparative antibiogram pattern of 758 clinical isolates collected from Pawana Hospital and Accord SDH, Pune (India), towards Elores (a novel antibiotic and adjutant entity of ceftriaxone, sulbactam and disodium edetate) and other antibiotics (imipenem, meropenem and piperacillin + tazobactam).

Methods: The clinical samples collected from outpatients and inpatients during a period of one year (January, 2018 to January, 2019), from Pawana Hospital and Accord SDH, Pune (India) and were further subjected to bacterial identification. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was executed in accordance with the recommendations of Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.

Results: Out of 758 collected samples, urine samples contributed 69.41 and 37.63% among Enterobacteriaceae and Non-Enterobacteriaceae followed by pus (20.25 and 19.35%) and sputum (4.2 and 19.89%) while <4% and <12% Enterobacteriaceae and Non-Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from rest of the specimen. E. coli were found most prevalent (50.13%) along with 19.13 and 16.09% prevalence of Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. whereas rest of the pathogens were <7% present. The antibacterial activity of Elores (87.80%) was observed superior to carbapenem drugs (meropenem; 62.67% and imipenem; 60.95%) and far better to piperacillin + tazobactam (48.42%) against 758 clinical pathogens. Antibiogram profile depicted Elores as most susceptible (95.10%) drug towards Enterobacteriaceae isolates which was approximately 31-50% more sensitive than other test drugs. Similar pattern was obtained for Non-enterobacteriaceae isolates (62.90%) where Elores contributed approximately 1-5% higher activity. However, Elores also conquered 79.51-86.59% resistance among meropenem, imipenem and piperacillin + tazobactam resistant pathogens.

Conclusion: Susceptibility profile data revealed the equivalence of Elores (Antibiotic-adjuvant entity; AAE) with carbapenem drugs (meropenem and imipenem) and superiority over piperacillin + tazobactam against clinical pathogens. Elores was also found active towards meropenem, imipenem and piperacillin + tazobactam resistant pathogens. Therefore, Elores, a resistance breaker, can be used as an efficient treatment alternate towards infections caused by resistant pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antifungal Susceptibility patterns of Candida Isolated on CHROMagarTMCandida at a Tertiary Referral Hospital, Eastern Uganda

Watsemwa Juliet Jane, Jacob Stanley Iramiot, John Bosco Kalule

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i630151

Background: Pregnant women are susceptible to vaginal candidiasis and maternal vulvovaginal candidiasis is a major risk factor for colonization and/or infection of the infant. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and antifungal patterns of albicans and non-albicans Candida among pregnant women attending a tertiary referral hospital.

Methods: Vaginal discharge- cotton swabs were self-collected from pregnant women clinically proven to have vulvovaginal candidiasis at the antenatal clinic of a tertiary referral hospital between January and July 2018. Microscopy and culture on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar with chloramphenicol was done on the vaginal discharge-cotton swabs. Confirmatory fungal identification was done using CHROM agarTM Candida. Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out using the standardized Kirby Bauer method.

Results: Candida were isolated from 50.81% (126/249) of the swabs  and included C. albicans (80.16%, 101/126), C. glabrata (19.05% (24/126) and C. krusei (0.79%, 1/126). Candida albicans showed resistance to amphotericin B (70.63%, 89/126), clotrimazole (11.9%, 15/126), nystatin (3.17%, 4/126), fluconazole (23.02%, 29/126), and itraconazole (17.46%, 22/126). Among the non-albican Candida species, C. glabrata showed resistance to fluconazole (100% ,24/24), amphotericin B (100% ,24/24), clotrimazole (14.29%, 18/24), nystatin (1.59%, 2/24), and itraconazole (18.25%, 23/24). C. krusei showed resistance to fluconazole (100%, 1/1), amphotericin B (100%,1/1), and itraconazole (100%, 1/1).

Conclusion: The candida species commonly associated with VVC in Eastern Uganda are C. albicans C. glabrata and C. krusei. Antifungal resistance was highly prevalent among the candida isolated. The use of CHROMagarTMCandida media for identification of clinically relevant Candida should be adopted instead of conventional methods that are tedious and time consuming such that treatment is based on laboratory evidence.