Open Access Short Research Article

Improvement of Antibiotics Susceptibility of Escherichia coli in a Tertiary Hospital in Japan

Yuji Watanabe, Masafumi Seki

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i130121

Antimicrobial stewardship team (AST) and Infection Control Team (ICT) have recently been linked Infectious diseases (ID) physicians, and implemented in clinical settings in Japan. The microbiological effects of an AST and ICT, in addition to Diagnostic stewardship team (DST) supported by ID physicians in our tertiary hospital were shown in significant reduction of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli (E coli) including extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing E coli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of the Crude Extracts of the Leaves of Carica papaya Linn (Pawpaw) and Psidium guajava Linn (Guava)

Priscilla Alexander, Ismaila Yada Sudi, Martin Tizhe

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i130120

Psidium Guajava (Guava) and Carica Papaya leaves which have some ethnomedicinal applications were investigated. Phytochemical screening of their leaves revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, tannins and glycosides. Antimicrobial screening of the crude ethanolic extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for P. gujava on the organism was found to be 5.00 mg/ml against S. aureus, E. coli and S. faecalis, while that of C. papaya leaves is 10.00 mg/ml against S. aureus, E. coli and 8.00 mg/ml against S. faecalis respectively. C. papaya ethanolic extract showed more active inhibition against S. aureus with mean zone inhibition of 9.54 ± 0.03.  P.   gujava ethanolic extract has more active inhibition against E. coli with antibacterial activity with mean zone of inhibition of 10.44±0.02 and S. faecalis with mean zone of inhibition of 6.72 ± 0.01 respectively.  This study showed that the leaves extract of these plants are good sources of bioactive compounds. Demonstration of antibacterial activity against the test isolates is an indication that there is possibility of sourcing alternative antibiotic substances in these plants for the production of newer antibacterial agents. These plants therefore, could be an important source of medicine for the treatment of various diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Analysis of Beef Meat Collected at different Hours of the Day in Ekpoma Town Market

P. I. Okoh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i130122

A study on the microbiological analysis of beef meat collected at different hours of the day in Ekpoma market was carried out. 1 Kg of meat sample was purchased from the market at the different times (8 am, 12 noon and 5 pm) respectively. A part was cut into ten samples of ten grams each, which served as replicates. They were put in a clean polythene bag, labeled accordingly, and taken to the laboratory for microbiological analysis. Ten grams of the meat samples were weighed and homogenized into 90 mls of sterile distiller de-ionized water, using a sterile warring blender and ten folds dilution of the homogenates was made using sterile pipettes. Mean counts of total proteolytic bacteria count (TPC), total viable count (TVC), Coliforms, Salmonella spp, Pseudomonas organisms and Bacillus spp, were all determined in the collected samples. Results from the study showed that total proteolytic bacteria count (TPC) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in samples collected at 5pm having 7.867, compared with those collected at 12 noon and 8 am having 6.050 and 5.267 log10 CFU/g respectively. Total viable count (TVC) were significantly (P<0.05) lesser at 8am having 4.517, compared with 12 noon and 5 pm which recorded 5.520 and 7.723 log10 CFU/g respectively. Also, coliforms counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher at 5 pm when compared at 12 noon and 8 am, while Pseudomonas count recorded significantly (P<0.05) lesser value at 8 am having 1.193, compared with 12 noon and 5 pm which had 2.500 and 3.557 log10 CFU/g respectively. Total Bacillus counts also recorded a significantly (P<0.05) lesser values of 1.100 at 8am compared with 1.823 at 12noon and 3.030 at 5 pm, while those of Salmonella spp. recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher value of 3.030 at 5 pm compared with 3.283 and 2.937 log10 CFU/g recorded at 12 noon and 8 am respectively. This shows that microbiological analysis of beef meat were higher as the time (hours) of the day progressed. In conclusion, meat should be bought from the market in the early hours (8 am) of the day.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aerobic Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Bacteria Isolated from Sterile Body Fluids: A Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India

Mariya Rouf, Asifa Nazir

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i130123

Aims: This study aims to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial pathogens of sterile body fluids and to determine their susceptibility to various antibacterial agents.

Study Design: This study was a retrospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care hospital.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, SMHS hospital, Srinagar. A total of 814 samples were analysed for bacteriological culture and antibiotic sensitivity over a period of one year, from April 2018 to March 2019.

Methodology: Clinical specimens (pleural fluid, ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, Synovial fluid, pericardial fluid and bile) were processed for bacterial culture according to standard procedures and antimicrobial susceptibility test for isolated organisms was done using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method and interpreted as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations.

Results: In 814 samples of various body fluids, 88 samples showed growth of organism with an isolation rate of 10.81%. growth was most commonly seen in CSF (34.09%) followed by Ascitic fluid (23.86%, Bile (20.45), Pleural fluid (15.90%) and Synovial fluid (5.68%). No growth was obtained from pericardial fluid. The most predominant isolates were E. coli (23.86%), Pseudomonas sp (15.90%), Acinetobacter (14.77%), Klebsiella sp (7.95%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.36%), CONS (12.5%) and Enterococcus sp (4.54%). E. coli and Klebsiella were sensitive to imipenem, meropenem. colistin, amikacin and gentamicin. Staph. aureus and CONS were mostly sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, and teicoplanin. Pseudomonas was sensitive to imipenem, meropenem, colistin and piperacillin/tazobactam. Acinetobacter, E. coli and Klebsiella sp were the most resistant organisms.

Conclusion: In our study significant numbers of multidrug resistant bacteria were isolated from body fluids which calls for regular monitoring of prevalent pathogenic organisms and their sensitivities to avoid indiscriminate use of unnecessary antibiotics and the development of antibiotic resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiogram Analysis and Characterization of Bacterial Pathogens from Leucorrhea Patients

Nazish Mazhar Ali, Muhammad Shahzad, Muqadas Bano, Iram Liaqat, Bushra Mazhar, Samina Zain, Atif Yaqub

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i130124

In recent research work bacteria were isolated from samples of leucorrhea patients admitted in Lady Wellington hospital Lahore (gynae ward) and Basheer welfare hospital Shahdara Lahore. The sampling was done from pregnant and non-pregnant leucorrhea patients aged 18 to 30 years by using sterile culture sticks from vagina. The samples were spread on agar plates and incubated for overnight, bacterial strains were isolated by streak plate method. The strains were named L1, L2, L3 and L4. Identification was carried out by various morphological and biochemical tests. Molecular characterization was also done to characterize bacteria up to species level. L1 strain was identified as Streptococcus pyogens, L2 as Staphylococcus aureus, L3 as Neisseria gonorrheae and L4 as Escherchia coli. Antibiotic resistance was analyzed by disc plate method.  L1, L2 and L3 strains showed maximum sensitivity with Cefepime antibiotics having values 17.74 µg/ml, 13.63 µg/ml and 12 µg/ml respectively. L4 showed max sensitivity with Azithromycin and Cloxacillin antibiotics i.e., 6.25 µg/ml and 6.4 µg/ml respectively. Optimum pH was 6.5 for L1 and L2, while 7 for L3 and L4. Optimum temperature was 37 for all strains.