Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effects of Some Preservative Hurdles on the Quality of Zobo Drink Stored at Ambient Temperature

Chukwu Victor Chibueze, Oyeleke Solomon Bankole, Anuonye Julian Chukwuemeka, Bala Jeremiah David

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i530109

Aim: Comparative Effects of Some Preservative Hurdles on the Quality of Zobo Stored at Ambient Temperature were assessed.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria, between June 218 and January 2019.

Methodology: Fresh zobo drink samples were prepared from Hibiscus sabdariffa using modified methods of HACCP and Hurdle technology for preservation and stored on the shelf for six months. The samples were divided into seven. Analyses were carried out on monthly basis with respect to microbial quality, pH, titratable acidity (TTA), total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C content and sensory qualities of the beverage for six months. The parameters changed significantly (p<0.05) with respect to storage period. Zero microbial count was recorded for all the samples as at the time of production.

Results: The control sample deteriorated after one month, pasteurization at 75°C for 20 minutes successfully eradicated all coliforms and indicator organisms as none was isolated during the shelf study. Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Aspergillus niger, penicillium sp, Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from the both the control and pasteurized (Gcontrol and G2) samples were responsible for the spoilage of the beverage after one month. G3, G4 G5, G6 and G7 preserved beyond six months, without imparting negatively on the sensory qualities of the drink. They significantly (p<0.05) showed the same overall acceptability, mouthfeel, flavour, colour and taste.

Conclusion: Sample G3 stored best after six months on the shelf.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water in Zamfara North Senatorial District, Nigeria

A. Y. Fardami, B. Mamuda, I. A. Kangiwa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i530110

Provision of portable drinking water is of public health concern especially in developing countries where this is unavailable. Microbes are ubiquitous and are known to contaminate materials including food and water. Microbial contamination cannot be detected by sight, smell or taste. A basic laboratory test is the best way to tell if coliform organisms are present as they can be there with no appearance or taste difference. The microbiological quality of drinking water (DW) in Zamfara North Senatorial Zone was examined. A total of 16, two each from each of eight brands of sachet water were bought from water vendors, and were examined for total bacteria load, total coliform and presence of bacteria species using standard microbiological techniques. The result showed that the total viable count of bacteria in all the samples ranged from 6.0×102 CFU/ml to 4.0×108 CFU/ml. Total coliform was 1.8×107 MPN/100 ml for all the four tested samples (D, G, I, J). The organisms isolated were Pseudomonas maltophila, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas pseudomollia, Salmonella typhi, Shigella species, and Pseudomonas dimineta. Prevalence of different isolates revealed that Pseudomonas, C. freundii, S. typhi and E. coli were predominant in comparison to Shigella species. The present study revealed that the microbial quality often exceed World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) allowable limit of 1.0x102 CFU/ml for potable water and Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON) maximum permissible level of 10 CFU/ml (total coliform) and 0 CFU/100ml. The high microbial isolates and load may have contaminated the water from the environment. These microbes found in the drinking water sources are known to cause several diseases. Present study indicate that water testing would ensure the supply and availability of contamination-free drinking water; and awareness amongst people towards sanitation and hygienic conditions for storage of drinking water is needed to keep away the use of contaminated water. The present study suggests that drinking water sources should be properly treated prior to consumption using appropriate methods; so as to reduce the occurrence of waterborne diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Bacterial and Fungal Isolates Associated with Road Traffic Accident In-patients in General Hospitals in Niger State

P. T. Chukwuka, S. A. Garba, M. E. Abalaka, V. C. Chukwu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i530111

Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria and fungi isolated from wounds of in-patients with road traffic accidents at four General hospitals in Niger State.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria, between October 2017 and May 2018.

Methodology: Wound swabs were taken twice per patient, first swab at contact and second swab taken seven days post wound dressing. The outcome of 1000 wound swabs taken from 409 (267 male and 142 female) in-patients with road traffic accident wound treated in the General hospitals Bida, Minna, Kontagora and Suleja areas of Niger State, Nigeria.

Results: The results showed that 405 (40.5%) samples were positive for bacteria and fungi pathogens while 595 (59.5%) were negative. 262 (80.6%) swabs yielded single isolates while 46 (14.2%) yielded double organisms and 17 (5.2%) yielded three or more organisms. Of the 405 positive cultures, 347 (85.7%) were bacterial isolates while 58 (14.3%) were fungal isolates. Staphylococcus aureus predominates (37.7%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.6%), E. coli (11.4%), Streptococcus pyogenes (9.4%), Bacillus subtillis (7.2%), Klebsiella pneumonia (4.4%), Aspergillus niger (4.2%), Candida albicans (3.7%), Aspergillus flavus (2.7%), Candida pseudotropicallis (2.2%) and Mucor pusillus (1.5%).

Conclusion: Most bacterial isolates were sensitive to Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Gentamycin, while others showed some degree of resistance to the remaining antibiotics. Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the highest resistance to all the antibiotics used. All the fungi isolated were highly sensitive to the antifungal drugs used except Griseofulvin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Sesquiterpenes and Antibacterial Activities of Extracts from Piliostigma reticulatum (DL.) Hochst and Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl & Diels against Shigella dysenteriae and Streptococcus pyogenes

A. O. Daniels, O. O. Owoyemi, O. Famurewa, J. O. Oluyege

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i530112

Aim: The study characterized sesquiterpenes from the bark extracts of Piliostigma reticulatum and Cleistopholis patens and subsequently tested the extracts for their antibacterial activities. Methodology: Ground stem barks of P. reticulatum and C. patens were obtained and extracted with ethyl acetate. The extract from both plants were screened for antibacterial activities against Shigella dysenteriae and Streptococcus pyogenes using the agar well diffusion method. Furthermore, fractions obtained from the crude extracts were also assayed for antibacterial efficacy using the disc diffusion method. The phyto-constituents of the extracts were identified using Gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC-MS) and subsequent characterization was achieved via Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR).

Results: The results showed that P. reticulatum extract had more antibacterial activities on S. dysenteriae with zones of inhibition ranging from 6 mm – 14 mm while it had lesser inhibitory effect against S. pyogenes with zones of inhibition of 10 mm and 8 mm at concentrations of 100 mg/mL and 80 mg/mL respectively. However, C. patens was effective against S. pyogenes with zones of inhibition of 18 mm, 16 mm, 14 mm, 13 mm, and 8 mm at concentrations  of 100, 60, 40, 20 and 10 mg/mL respectively. Crude extracts from both plants exhibited higher antibacterial activity compared to purified fractions against test organisms. A number of five (5) Sesquiterpenes (azulenes, alpha and beta pinene, Germacrene D, Limonene, and Farnesol) were identified from the extracts of both plants.

Conclusion: The presence of sesquiterpenes in P. reticulatum and C. patens could be responsible for the antibacterial activities on the test organisms (S. dysenteriae and S. pyogenes) evaluated in this study and subsequently justify their use in folkloric medicine. Hence, the extracts obtained from P. reticulatum and C. patens could be considered as a potential and rich source of antibacterial agent to control infections posed by the test organisms (S. dysenteriae and S. pyogenes).

Open Access Original Research Article

Mycoflora Associated with Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) from Ad Darb, Jizan, Saudi Arabia

Syeda Fatima Manzelat

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i530113

Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a very important and commonly growing tree found in Saudi Arabia. The fruit is nutritionally important and adds to the economy of the country. Isolation and identification of the phytopathogenic mycoflora is an important tool in the diagnosis of the pathogenic genera which are damaging to the palm under study. This is the first attempt to isolate and identify the phytopathogenic fungal flora found on the phylloplane and other plant parts of date palm from Ad Darb region of Jizan province during the year 2018. The media employed for the study was Potato Dextrose Agar on which 0.5 cm direct pieces of the diseased parts (phylloplane, fruit, rachis and trunk) of the date palm were inoculated. The isolated fungi were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively and the results interpreted in the form of table, bar diagram and photomicrographs. The mycoflora is represented by Aspergillus, Botrytis, Ceratocystis, Fusarium, Graphiola, Penicillium, Rhizopus ,Saprolegnia and Syncephalastrum. One hundred and fifty four fungal isolates were obtained from the nine represented genera. Aspergillus was the predominant genera with seventy four isolates. This study will help in the protection and conservation of this very important plant in the province. The study can also help the plant pathologist in disease forecasting and effective monitoring of the different diseases of the date palm thereby helping in the management and minimization of economic loss.