Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Three Combinations of Different Antibiotics against Microorganisms in Gingival Abscess – An in Situ Study

Viral Maru Pravin, Farhin Katge, Manohar Poojari, Shilpa K. Shetty

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i130088

Background: It is important to maintain primary dentition in the dental arch to facilitate the development of permanent teeth, in spite of teeth with infected root canals. Antimicrobial agents have been used, but, even a broad spectrum antibiotic could not eradicate all the bacteria from the periapical lesions. An in situ study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of combinations antibiotics against microorganisms in a gingival abscess or primary tooth root canals.

Methodology: Thirty children with gingival abscess secondary to pulp infection or infected primary tooth root canals were randomly selected for the study. Swabs of gingival abscess microbial content were used for development of bacteria in suitable media containing three combinations of antibiotics, under aerobic and anaerobic incubation. Ciprofloxacin, Minocycline were used with metronidazole, ornidazole, tinidazole antibiotics to form three different combinations. The antimicrobial efficacy was measured in terms of the diameter of the zone of inhibition around the antibiotic discs.

Results: The three combinations of antibiotics exhibit equivalent efficacy for aerobic as well as anaerobic bacteria, and the difference in efficacy between them was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). There was no difference in pair-wise significance between the groups.

Conclusion: In view of the equivalent antibacterial activity of the three classes, towards the two types of bacteria, a group containing ornidazole was found to be superior with more favorable side effect profile compared to metronidazole.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aromatic Hydrocarbons Degradation and Plasmid Profile of Marine Bacterial Isolates Obtained from Petroleum Contaminated Marine Environments of Niger Delta Nigeria

Bright Obidinma Uba

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i130087

Aims: To determine the aromatic hydrocarbons degradability and plasmid profile of the marine bacteria isolated from Rivers State contaminated marine environments of Niger Delta.

Study Design: Nine treatments and the controls designs were set up in triplicates containing 100 mL of sterile modified mineral basal medium in 500 mL conical flasks supplemented with 1 mg /L of xylene, anthracene and pyrene each; nine marine hydrocarbon degraders and incubated at 24 ºC for 24 days study. The nine treatments and control set ups designated as ANT1, XYL2, PYR3, ANT4, PYR5, ANT6, XYL7, XYL8, PYR9 and CTRL (Without hydrocarbons) were used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbons degradability and plasmid profile of the marine bacteria.  

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa between September, 2015 and March, 2018.

Methodology: A laboratory scale study was carried on six composite samples of the sediment and water samples from the three studied areas using enrichment, screening, selection, morphological, biochemical, degradation and plasmid assays.

Results: The findings revealed that the three sampling sites harbour a lot of efficient aromatic degrading bacterial strains belonging to the genera: Providencia, Alcaligenes, Brevundimonas, Myroides, Serratia, and Bacillus able to significantly (P = .05) tolerate and grow on the aromatic hydrocarbons. The bacterial strains especially Serratia marcescens XYL7 significantly (P = .05) removed 99.50 ± 0.05 % and 60.00 ± 0.02 % in weights of xylene and pyrene, respectively while Alcaligenes faecalis PYR5 significantly (P =.05) degraded 97.40 ± 0.01 % in weight of anthracene. The degradations of the respective hydrocarbons were found to be plasmid mediated with plasmid sizes between 200 bp - 1.2 kbp.

Conclusion: Thus, the excellent degradative abilities of these bacterial strains especially Serratia marcescens XYL7 could be exploited for bioremediation purposes in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Quality of Well Water in Upland and Riverine Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria

C. C. Nwankwo, M. Julie, Ovunda

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i130089

In this study, health risk assessment of well water from twelve communities grouped into upland and riverine in Rivers State was carried out in several categories such as uses of water, skin infections and health assessment via questionnaire distribution. Malaria was recorded to be the most common disease related to water. Furthermore, water samples were collected and analysed for physiochemical, biochemical and pathological characteristics. The average pH was 7.52, an indication of neutrality. Several species of bacterial and fungal organisms were isolated and identified. The total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), total fungal and total coliform counts ranged from 14.0x104cfu/ml to 100.0x104cfu/ml, 3.2x103cfu/ml to 7.4x103cfu/ml and 4 cfu/100 ml to ≥2400 cfu/100 ml respectively. Morphological and biochemical observations revealed the presence of the following organisms: Aeromonas sp., Alcaligenes sp., Bacillus sp. Citrobacter sp. E. coli, Enterobacter sp, Klebsiella sp., Micrococcus sp., Proteus sp., Salmonella sp., Sarcina sp., Shigella sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp. and Vibrio sp. Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. had the least percentage incidence of 8.3% while Vibrio sp had the most incidence of 100% in all the well water sampled. Well water is a source of pathogenic bacteria; hence, it is recommended that consistent water quality studies should be conducted on all the well water in the communities at least once in a year. Well water should also be treated before use to avoid the outbreak of water borne diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Extracts of Some Plants against Post Harvest Fungal Deterioration of Cassava Root (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Nigeria

A. C. Amadioha, Kenkwo Promise Chidi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i130090

Fungitoxic potentials of Piper guineense, Ocimum graticimum, Casia alata, and Tagetes erecta extracts in the management of postharvest fungal deterioration of cassava root were investigated. Pathogenicity tests revealed Aspergillus niger, and Trichodderma viride as causal organisms of root rot of cassava which utilized the substrate for their growth and development. A. niger was found to be more virulent having the highest rot incidence of 75% followed by T. viride which depicted a lower pathogenic effect with rot incidence of 33.3%. The result of the inhibitory potentials of the water and ethanolic extracts of P. guineense, O. graticimum, C. alata, and T. erecta against the two fungal pathogens showed significant differences (p≤0.5) in their rates of fungitoxicity on A. niger, and T. viride. The ethanolic extract of T. erecta gave the highest mean inhibitory effect of 63.8% on A. niger while the least mean growth inhibition of 9.20% was recorded by water extract of P. guineense on T. viride. The results of in vivo test of the plant extracts applied before and after inoculation with spore suspension of test fungi indicated high significant effect on the rot incidence and severity. Piper guineense water extract was less effective in controlling the development and spread of the pathogens during pathogenesis hence the highest percentage disease incidence and severity when it was applied after the inoculation with spore suspension of A. niger. The lowest incidence of rot was recorded with water and ethanol extracts of T. erecta applied before inoculation of T. viride. A. niger showed a stronger resistance to the plant extracts than T. viride in the control of cassava root rot in storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinico-epidemiological and Socio-demographic Profile of HIV/AIDS Patients Diagnosed at a Tertiary Care Centre in Kashmir

Yousuf Ul Bashir, Anjum Farhana, Junaid Ahmed, Sheikh Mohammad Saleem, Huda Shafi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i130091

Objectives: To study the Clinico-epidemiological and Socio-demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients diagnosed at HIV clinic of Government Medical College and associated hospitals, Srinagar. 

Methods: A total of 50220 individuals visited the said clinic and were enrolled for the study. The Screening was done using different Elisa's as advised by NACO and those confirmed as HIV positive were studied for their clinical spectrum and different demographic parameters.

Results: Out of a total of 50220 patients tested for HIV 1 and/or HIV 2 infection, 173 were detected seropositive for HIV 1. The mean age of presentation of the participants was 30.04 ± 7.1 years. Among the seropositive patients, 138 (79.7%) were married, 70(40.4%) were security personnel’s, 123 (71.09%) were from non-local population and 150 (86.7%) belonged to rural areas. The commonest mode of transmission was heterosexual route 126 (72.8%). Majority of the participants 91(52.6%) who were detected positive for HIV/AIDS were having CD4 count at presentation between 150-250/µl. The commonest symptoms among HIV/AIDS seropositive patients was fever. Furthermore, sero-positive patients also had secondary opportunistic infections among which pulmonary tuberculosis was most common.

Conclusion: The clinical and demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients in Kashmir is largely similar to the rest of India. Kashmir no longer stands immune to the menace of HIV/AIDS. With increasing globalization, frequent travel and change in social values the state is likely to witness an alarming rise in new cases unless a multipronged approach is undertaken to control the spread.