Open Access Short Research Article

In vitro Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activities of Zea mays’ Stigma and Carica papaya Seeds Hydro-Ethanolic Extracts

M. Salou, A. B. W. Siliadin, S. Dossim, B. Djeri, K. Anani, A. Sadji, Y. Ameyapoh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2018/v26i530078

Corn and especially maize stigma are traditionally used to facilitate urinary and digestive elimination functions that favour certain diseases such as urinary tract infections. Similarly, papaya seeds possess potent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, which improve digestive health. The above activities of these parts of plants aforesaid might be associated with antibacterial activities. We aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of these two food crops. Each plant materials collected were air dried in shade, dried, and ground into fine powder, which were soaked in solvents (water: 30% - ethanol 70%) and shacked for 48 h. After filtering, every mixture was concentrated by using rotavapor and the extracts were prepared 100 mg/ml in sterile distilled water for antibacterial test. The antibacterial activities and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test of the extracts were assessed by microdilution method associated with spreading in agar medium. Both extracts showed bacteriostatic activity. The MIC values ranged from 25 to 50 mg/ml while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the two extracts were at least 50mg/ml on each of three bacterial species studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Profile and Catabolic Pathways Involved in Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Marine Bacteria Isolated from Niger Delta, Nigeria

Bright Obidinma Uba

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2018/v26i530075

Aims: To determine the growth profile and catabolic pathways involved in degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons by marine bacteria isolated from Niger Delta, Nigeria.

Study Design: Nine treatments designs were set up in triplicate in 500 mL conical flask containing 100 mL of sterile modified mineral basal medium supplemented with three aromatic hydrocarbons (100 mg /L each) and nine marine aromatic hydrocarbon degraders. The treatments were kept in the laboratory and incubated at 24 ºC for 24 days degradation period. The nine treatments and control set ups designated as ANT1, XYL2, PYR3, ANT4, PYR5, ANT6, XYL7, XYL8, PYR9 and CTRL were used to determine the growth profile and metabolic pathways involved in degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons by marine bacteria.

Place and Duration of Study: The studied sites were Abonema Wharf Water Front in Akuku-Toru Local Government Area, Nembe Water-side in Port Harcourt Local Government Area and Onne Light Flow Terminal Seaport located in Eleme Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria between September, 2015 and June, 2018.

Methodology: A laboratory scale study was carried on six composite samples of the sediment and water samples from the three studied areas using enrichment, screening, selection, molecular characterization, degradation and GC-MS assays.

Results: The findings revealed that the sampling sites harbour a lot of efficient aromatic degrading bacterial strains belonging to the genera: Providencia, Alcaligenes, Brevundimonas, Myroides, Serratia, and Bacillus. The bacterial strains were able to significantly (P =.05) degrade simple, low and high molecular weights aromatic hydrocarbons as source of carbon and energy. These strains utilized 100 mg /L of xylene (one ring), anthracene (three rings), and pyrene (four rings) via two main catabolic pathways and catechol is the major constant product that appeared during the degradation period (24 days).

Conclusion: Thus, the biodegradation capacities and metabolic pathways obtained from these results suggest that these bacteria especially Serratia marcescens XYL7 could be used efficiently to bioremediate aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated aquatic ecosystems in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

First Molecular Characterisation of Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Togo (West Africa)

Menssah Teko, Mounerou Salou, Solange E. Kakou Ngazoa, Issaka Maman, Kodjovi Agbodeka, David Coulibaly N., Christiane Aby Amon, Bahou Roger Dehe, Yaovi Ameyapoh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2018/v26i530076

Background: Buruli ulcer is the third most common mycobacterial disease worldwide. Cases most occur in 30 countries but severe cases occur in West Africa countries such as Benin, Cote d’Ivoire and Togo mainly in rural regions. Early diagnosis may prevent severe disability. The molecular technique seems the best solution and new Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units (MIRU) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method are themost reproducible in this regard. They propose geographical, inter and intraspecies differentiation and can be used as a diagnosis tool.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular diversity by using MIRUVNTR typing in clinical samples of BU patients in Togo.

Study Design: 64 DNA extracts from clinical samples were collected from BU patients in the two principal endemics districts in Togo (Yoto and Zio) with three less endemic districts (Bas Mono, Lacs and Vo). First, IS2404 and KR real-time PCR plus IS2606 conventional PCR were performed. In a second step, the strains were analysed by PCR typing for five specific and sensitive markers MIRU1, VNTR6, ST1, VNTR19 and VNTR9.

Results and Conclusion: 71.11% were positive for IS2404, 3.13% were positives for PCR-KR and 31.11% for IS 2606. By MIRU-VNTR typing, 48.86% positive result was found for MIRU1 and 25.00%, 20.31%, 18.75% and 14.06% for VNTR6, ST1, VNTR19 and VNTR9 respectively. One of the samples was negative for all genotyping markers. Two different genetic profiles were identified by MIRU1, ST1 and VNTR loci by gel-analysed of the amplified products. The VNTR profile B (3,1,1,2) corresponding of 3 copies MIRU1, 1 copy VNTR6, 1 copy ST-1 and two copies of VNTR19 was detected in 15.63% of samples and the VNTR profile A (1,1,1,2) corresponding of 1 copy MIRU1, 1 copy VNTR6, 1 copy ST-1 and 2 copies of VNTR19 was detected in 3.13% of samples and confirms the West African genotype (3,1,1) in Togo. Different genetic strains of Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans) were co-circulated in the same endemic region in the country. This study has described first the circulating of different genetic strains of M. ulcerans in Togo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identifying Possible Hepatic Fibrosis of Hepatitis B Origin Using Non-invasive Markers: A Case-control Study in the South West Region of Cameroon

Kukwah Anthony Tufon, Henry Dilonga Meriki, Kwenti Emmanuel Tebit, Teuwafeu Denis Georges, Nyeke James Tony, Nicholas Tendongfor, George Enow-Orock, Damian Nota Anong

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2018/v26i530077

Aim: HBV infection is known to cause liver fibrosis as well as some extrahepatic manifestations. We aimed at assessing hematological changes and identifying possible hepatic fibrosis of Hepatitis B origin using non-invasive markers (NIMs).

Study Design: A hospital-based Case-control study

Place and Duration of Study: Conducted at the Buea Regional Hospital, South West Region of Cameroon from February 2016 to December 2017

Methods: We enrolled HBV infected treatment naïve patients and “healthy” controls. All participants were subjected to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) measurement, Full blood count (FBC), HBsAg, anti-HBc, HIV and HCV tests. Aspartate-platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis based on 4 factors (FIB-4), age-platelet index (API) and AST/ALT ratio (AAR) were generated from the test results. A questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data, alcohol consumption and history of liver/kidney disease or metabolic syndrome.

Results: A total of 202 cases and 202 controls were enrolled. Hematocrit (HCT) was significantly higher (p<0.001) in cases than controls. The controls had significantly higher mean values for platelet (p=0.005), neutrophil (p=0.032) and number of individuals with AST/ALT ratio (AAR) ≥1. Liver fibrosis was significantly associated with cases than controls based on APRI (OR:6.06, CI:3.59-10.24), FIB-4 (OR:5.35, CI:2.75-10.39) and API (OR:8.02, CI:1.81-35.55). Among the HBV infected cases, 69 (34.2%), 36(17.8%) and 8(4.0%) had results indicative of fibrosis from at least 2, at least 3 and all 4 NIMs respectively. AAR detected possible fibrosis in 136 HBV infected cases of which up to 77 (56.6%) were not detected as fibrosis by the other NIMs.

Conclusion: HBV infection affects neutrophil percentage, HCT, PLT, APRI, FIB-4 and API in our study population. AAR did not prove to be a reliable NIM. Using at least 3 NIMs for HBV infected patients can significantly scale up their reliability for determining liver fibrosis in clinical practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Recreational Water Quality Assessment of Some Selected Swimming Pools in the Asuogyaman District, Ghana

Matthew Glover Addo, Joseph Tee, John Asiedu Larbi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2018/v26i530079

The aim of this study seeks to assess the quality of recreational waters in selected swimming pools in the Asuogyaman district in the Eastern Region, Ghana. Samples from three different swimming facilities, coded as VH, RS and SH were collected during the months of March 2018 through to August, 2018 and analyzed in the laboratory employing standard methods for physicochemical properties and microbiological load. Isolates of coliforms were identified by API20E. Mean residual chlorine was significantly higher in the VH pool (1.357±1.09, P<0.001) than the pools at SH and RS. The mornings recorded significantly higher mean turbidity values in all the pools (VH: 2.385±0.8, P<0.001; SH: 3.392±0.9, P=0.010; RS: 2.77±1.0, P=0.007). Coliforms were isolated in the morning at VH pool (1.375±3.3) and RS pool (0.583±1.38) and evening at the SH pool (64.00±66.35) even though they were within acceptable limits. With regards to the sampled place, the middle part had the most coliforms isolated with SH pool having the highest (49.46±59.72) isolates. Although there was no significant (P=0.05) association between total coliforms and the physicochemical parameters at the SH and RS pool, turbidity was associated directly with temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS), and indirectly with pH. Continued physicochemical and microbiological analysis of these pools will give an objective insight into pool hygiene and help to prevent infection outbreaks among pool users.