Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Characteristics of Septic Arthritis: A Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital

Syed Arshi, Mohd Suhail, Talat Masoodi, Huma Majeed, Roomi Yousuf, Syed Khursheed, Muzaffar ., Amrish Kohli, Sumaira Qayoom, Afreen .

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/46152

Background: To determine the epidemiological characteristics, etiological profile, and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from patients with primary septic arthritis at a university hospital.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed between 2016 and 2017. A review of records was done in the Microbiology Department, and patients with clinical suspicion of septic arthritis whose aspirates were received in the lab were selected for the study.

Results: Out of total 216 samples reviewed, 86 showed bacterial growth. Higher joints like knee and hip were more commonly involved and elderly persons were mainly involved (mean age 55 years). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism isolated (72%) and Vancomycin and Linezolid showed highest sensitivity. Among gram negative bacteria colistin and meropenem showed highest sensitivity.

Conclusions: Septic arthritis in our hospital was primarily acute, and monomicrobial; usually affected higher joints, and S. aureus was main causative agent, and adult patients were usually predisposed to this diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Toxoplasmosis among HIV/AIDS Patients and Correlation of Radiological Investigations with Laboratory Findings

Siddharth Pimpalkar, Meena Mishra, Arvind Kurhade, Chandrashekhar Unakal, Geeta Kurhade, Rajaram Powar

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/41977

Background: Toxoplasma gondii an intracellular protozoan causes toxoplasmosis a worldwide neglected tropical disease, which also causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients. The Toxoplasmosis was known for cerebral involvement more commonly among patients with HIV/AIDS and serious than extra-cerebral toxoplasmosis. For cerebral toxoplasmosis patients the definitive diagnosis is crucial by demonstrating the presence of the tachyzoite form of Toxoplasma gondii directly in the cerebral tissues. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among HIV patients and role of radiological investigation in the diagnosis.

Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. A total of 362 HIV positive patients attending ART clinic and provides informed consent were included in this study. The relevant investigations of each patient with clinical history were noted. ELISA test was carried out from blood samples to detect anti-toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21.

Results: Out of 362 HIV positive patients, Majority of the male patients were positive for HIV positive than females, 62.43% and 37.57% respectively.  About 99.17% of patients were married and most of them were from urban area (86.46%), Majority of the patients were labourers (39.78%) followed by house wives (20.72%). A total of 23.48% HIV positive patients were co-infected with toxoplasmosis of which 21.55% patients were married and from urban area. Most of the HIV positive patients and co-infected with toxoplasmosis were between the age groups of 25-34 and 35-44 years.  The overall correlation of serological and radiological features was seen in 68.23%. Although radiological investigations were helpful in  providing better localization of toxoplasmosis but less confirmatory than ELISA. So combination of modalities should be used in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis for appropriate management. Both the ELISA and the CT–scan were simultaneously positive in 75 (20.72%)  and negative in 172 (47.51%) cases. Among all HIV-toxoplasma co-infected patients, hyper density was seen in 15.29% patients, hypo density was present in 43.52% patients. Ring enhancement was observed among 29.41% cases.

Conclusion: We conclude from this study that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in HIV positive patients was high (23.48%) and more commonly found between the age groups of 25-34 and 35-44 years. Radiological investigations were helpful in providing better localization of toxoplasmosis but less confirmatory than ELISA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Differentiation of Acute and Latent Salmonella Infection in Cattle Using the Glyoxylate Pathway Gene aceA, Flagellar Gene fimA, and an Attempt at Validation by Bacterial Culture

Betsy A. Schroeder, Nammalwar Sriranganathan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/46492

Aims: To test the hypothesis that it is possible to detect latently Salmonella infected cattle using a glyoxylate pathway gene as a qPCR target.

Study Design: Convenience sample of tissue specimens.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, between April 2015 and July 2017.

Methodology: Supra-mammary lymph nodes from 40 dairy cattle and mesenteric lymph nodes from 100 cattle from a slaughter house were collected, sampled, and bisected. One half of each sample was cultured on Salmonella chromogenic agar, while the other half was tested using qPCR for both an acute infection associated gene (fimA) and a chronic/latent infection associated gene (aceA). The Salmonella culture isolation results were compared with the qPCR results for the above two genes.

Results: All 40 dairy cattle lymph nodes were qPCR negative for both fimA and aceA, and none of the lymph nodes were culture positive. From the 100 cattle mesenteric lymph nodes, 11 were qPCR positive for aceA, none were qPCR positive for fimA, and 7 were culture positive for Salmonella isolation. Of those 11 aceA qPCR positive, only 5 of them were culture positive and six were culture negative.

Conclusion: The qPCR results for mesenteric lymph nodes showed high specificity and predictive value negative. The results between qPCR and bacterial culture in supra-mammary lymph nodes may suggest that the number of Salmonella in the sample cultured may be below detection limit for both the assays. But the results demonstrate the advantage of using gene(s) primers to identify latent Salmonella infections in clinically normal cattle from slaughter house samples. In addition, the assay may be able to differentiate between latent vs active Salmonella infection. The sample size might be the reason for the lack of results in the case of the dairy cattle samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Terminalia superba Sawdust as Substrate for Laccase Production by Trametes sp. Isolate B7 under Solid State Fermentation

Benjamin Vandelun Ado, Abiodun Anthony Onilude, Tivkaa Joseph Amande

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/45718

Laccases catalyze a broad range of substrates due to their low substrate specificity and strong oxidative potentials. It can be produce from different sources which include plants, prokaryotes, arthropods and fungi especially Trametes sp. In this study laccases were produced by Trametes sp. isolate B7 utilizing sawdust as substrate in solid state fermentation. A fraction of the crude enzyme solution was partially purified and characterized. The highest total soluble protein (3.6 mg/mL) and laccase activity (2356 U/mL) were obtained on day 14 and 18 respectively at pH 5.0. The laccase was 2.3 and 9.0 times purified with 1487 U/mL and 5380 U/mL specific activity for pellets and dialysate respectively. The purified laccase was active in acidic pH (3.0 - 6.0) and temperature at 20 - 80°C while, stability was highest at pH 6.0 (89% for 24 hr) and 70°C (100% for 1 hr). Manganese, Lead, Mercury, Copper and Magnesium ions significantly increased laccase activity whereas Aluminium, Potassium, Iron and Zinc ions decrease activity of the purified enzyme (P = .05). EDTA activated laccase activity at 2 mM (117%) while L-cysteine inhibited enzyme activity at 1 mM - 5mM concentrations. Kinetic studies of the purified laccase showed KM 33 µM and Vmax 1.91 µMol./min/mL with molecular weight of ~36 kDa using N-PAGE. The purified laccase remained active in acidic conditions with high thermostability and resistance to inhibition of most of the metallic ions and EDTA tested. Thus, the enzyme was a versatile tool for biotechnological, industrial and bioremediation processes including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and dye wastewaters among other xenobiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Isolation of Bacteria from Selected Fresh Fruits

Alice T. Cole, Bukola O. Akinawoniran, O. V. Olagoke, B. Abubakre

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/45753

Fresh fruit products eaten raw and minimally processed are important component of a daily diet. The study intends to isolate and characterized bacterial isolates cultured from selected fresh fruit samples in Esa-Oke Metropolis. Streak plate method was employed to isolate the bacteria. The result shows that two bacteria each were isolated from the fruit samples, except for banana on which only Staphylococcus spp was isolated. Staphylococcus spp was predominant bacterial isolate cultured from all the selected fresh fruit samples with 54.5% occurrence, Escherichia coli 18.2%, Klebsiella spp 18.2% and Pseudomonas spp 9.1%. The study concluded that the need for improved quality control in the storage of fresh fruit cannot be over emphasized as good hygiene should be encouraged by washing both the hand and the fruit before consumption.