Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence and Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated from Effluent and Waste Dump Site Soil of Selected Hospitals in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria

I. E. Andy, E. A. Okpo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/44932

This study investigated the antibiogram of bacteria isolated from effluent and waste dump site soil of selected hospitals in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria. The bacterial isolates were identified on the basis of standard cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates was carried out according to Kirby-Bauer’s disc diffusion method. The results revealed that one hundred and seventy nine bacterial isolates were identified from the collected samples, of which 85(47.5%) and 94(52.5%), were from effluent and waste dump site soil respectively. The bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (22.9%), Escherichia coli (20.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.8%), Streptococcus sp (11.7%), Salmonella sp (7.8%), Klebsiella pneumonia (6.7%), Providencia sp (5.0%), Enterobacter aerogenes (5.0%), Proteus sp (2.8%), Chryseobacterium sp (1.7%), Bacillus cereus (1.7%) and Serratia marcescens (1.1%). Bacillus cereus was the only isolate that showed susceptibility to all the antibiotics tested against. However, Chryseobacterium sp showed 100% resistance to all the antibiotics tested against. The resistance observed in both samples (Effluents and waste dump site soil) were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The high level of antibiotic-resistant bacteria with various degrees of resistance observed in this study could be a potential public health risk. Therefore effective waste management practice should be put in place so as to control the wide spread of these antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Implications in Vended Street Foods in Kumasi, Ghana

Amina Abubakari, Emmanuel Gyekye

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/44068

Street foods are foods and beverages that are ready to be eaten and usually sold on the streets. This practice is common in the heart of cities in Ghana providing valuable services by supplying easy access of food to the public at a low cost. However, the safety of these foods is not assessed, in particular, the evaluation of the handling that can result in a contamination. In this study, we assessed the microbial contamination due to the handler involved in the processing of the ready-to-eat-foods (RTE) and with the use of a survey researchers highlighted the critical points in order to assess the hygiene practices observed. The study recruited 45 vendors using the random sampling method. Water samples were collected aseptically from the container where the food handlers use in washing their hands during the production of RTE. A structured questionnaire and an observational checklist were used to gather environmental and personal hygiene data from the vendors. Samples were analysed for the detection of different microbiological parameters including food-borne pathogens and 16 resulted positive (37.21%) for Escherichia coli, 12 (27.91%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (18.60%) for Staphylococcus aureus and 7 (16.28%) for Klebsiella spp. These results highlighted the importance of different management of the critical points in the RTE production, including guidelines for vendors, in order to guarantee the safety of handled foods that must be taken in consideration will from policy makers in order to guarantee the hygiene practices of these businesses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multiple-drug Resistance among Biofilm-producing Phenotypes of Nosocomial Escherichia coli

Muhammad M. Ibrahim, Adam Idris, Garba U. Mustapha, Shuaibu Suleiman

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/45696

Aims: Here, we analyse biofilm formation in relation to multiple drug resistance among nosocomial isolates of Escherichia coli.

Study Design: Randomized study design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was a cross sectional study conducted at the Department of Microbiology, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria, from April 2018 to May 2018.

Methodology: Ten (10) clinical isolates were collected and confirmed using standard bacteriological methodology. Congo Red Agar (CRA) was used to analyse biofilm formation among isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done using Kirby bauer disc diffusion test, where the efficacy of ten (10) selected drugs against the isolates was examined.

Results: Seventy percent (70.0%) of the isolates were found to produce biofilm. All isolates were resistant to Ofloxacin (100%; f=4.5, P<0.01). 57.1% of the biofilm producing isolates were observed to be multi drug resistant. Biofilm-producing/multi-drug resistant isolates were resistant to an average of ninety five percent (95.0%) of antimicrobial drugs tested. Fourty three percent (43.0%) of the biofilm producing phenotypes were Pandrug resistant.

Conclusion: In view of this, it is can be deduced that there is a relationship between biofilm formation and multiple drug resistance among nosocomial isolates of Escherichia coli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological and Pathological Effects of Bacteria from Vegetable Wastes in Ilara-Mokin, Ondo State

F. O. Omoya, A. O. Momoh, O. S. Fadare

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/42799

Aims: Different selling points or markets in Ilara-Mokin town were visited after the market session and a day after to collect vegetable wastes. This research aimed to isolate bacteria and fungi from selected waste vegetables, to infect laboratory animals with the bacterial isolates and to study the effect of the isolated bacteria on the laboratory animals.

Methodology: Three major vegetable wastes were commonly found in the markets and they are Amaranthus cruentus (Arowojeja), Senecio biafrae (Worowo) and Spinacia oleracea (Amunututu). Sufficient quantity of these decaying wastes were collected and sterile crucible was used to grind the waste samples. On each sample, serial dilution was done using 2g. Nutrient Agar and potato dextrose agar were used for isolation of bacteria and fungi respectively. Standard Microbiological methods were used for the identification of the microorganisms.

Results: Five bacteria were isolated from the waste, which are: Salmonella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Also six fungi were isolated from the waste vegetable. They are: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Geotrichum spp. and Articularia quercina. All of the bacteria were sensitive to commercial antibiotics like ciprofloxacin and gentamicin, except Salmonella spp that showed resistance to Tetracycline, Augmentin and Ceftriaxone. The bacterial isolates were then used to infect Albino rats and haematogical analysis was performed on the animals’ blood. The result showed that Proteus, and Pseudomonas reduced the PCV from 45.55±1.67% (in control group) to 36.75±0.55% and 37.25±0.33% respectively. The haemoglobin concentration was decreased from 15.00±0.00 (in control group) to 12.33±0.67 in the group infected with Pseudomonas. The white blood cell count was highest on the group infected with Salmonella with a count of 12.2±0.96×105 mm-3. Histopathological Analysis of the liver and intestine of the rats showed that the pathogenic microorganisms cause negative pathological effects such as absence of sinusoid in the liver hepatocytes, hepatocellular drainage and necrosis, while only necrosis and haemorrhage were prominent in their intestine.

Conclusion: The result obtained has shown that pathogenic microorganisms from these vegetable wastes can cause serious health problem for the public if not disposed adequately, especially when these vegetable vendors place freshly harvested ones on the same ground the next market day; and when such is bought and not properly washed or cooked.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterisation of Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Cattle Faeces in Abidjan District, Ivory Coast

René Kouamé Yao, Julien Kalpy Coulibaly, Bertin Konan Tiekoura, Félix Houphouët Yapi, Joseph Allico Djaman

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/45271

Aims: To determine the frequency of Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase producing E. coli strains in cattle farms in Abidjan district (Ivory Coast).

Methodology: A total of 420 bovine faecal samples were collected in five townships in Abidjan district over six (6) month period from April to September 2016. ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated on Rapid E. coli 2 medium supplemented with 2 mg / L ceftazidime (antibiotic). The antibiotic resistance profile was evaluated by the diffusion method in agar media and the detection of strains of Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase producing E. coli was performed by the double-disk synergy test. Molecular detection of CTX-M, SHV and TEM genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: Out of the 85 strains of E. coli isolated (20,2%), 45 strains were confirmed producing ESBL, a prevalence of 52,9%. The blaCTX-M, blaSHV and blaTEM genes were detected in 15 strains of Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase producing E. coli resistant to quinolone with respective frequencies of 73,3%, 66,7% and 100%.

Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase producing E. coli strains in cattle faeces in the Abidjan district. A good use of antibiotics would be an alternative to overcome the problem of the emergence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase producing E. coli strains in farms