Open Access Short Research Article

Prevalence and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Wound and Otitis Media among Patients Attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

Suraj Ibrahim, Abubakar Sunusi Adam, Adamu Almustapha Aliero, Shamsuddeen Umar

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/44684

Aims: The study aimed at determining the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of S. aureus isolated from wound and otitis media among patients attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospitals, Kano Nigeria.

Study Design:  This was an experimental laboratory cross-sectional study conducted from May to June, 2013. Both out and inpatients presenting with wound and otitis media or highly suspicious of having otitis media infection was recruited in the study. Only patient attending treatment at Aminu Kano University-Teaching Hospital was included in the study. Purposive sampling technique was applied to recruit patients who have satisfied the selection until the desired sample size was reached. Swab samples were collected after obtaining informed consent from the selected patients.

Methodology: A total of 150 swab samples (wounds 80 swabs and ears 70 swabs) were collected from males and females, adults and children patients at specimen collection center and brought to the Microbiology laboratory, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital for analysis. All the swab samples were inoculated on Mannitol salt agar and incubated overnight at 37°C. After 24hrs, the isolates were identified using catalase, coagulase and DNAse test. The identified isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing using disc diffusion method.

Results: Out of 150 samples collected, 71 (47.3%) were positive for S. aureus from all the categories of patients. Among the antibiotics tested, Erythromycin, Cefalexin, Tetracycline and Ceftriaxone were more effective against S. aureus while Trimethophrim, Gentamycin, Clindamycin, Oxacillin and Cefoxitin had the highest resistance.

Conclusion: In conclusion the study revealed that S. aureus is more prevalent in wound patient compared to otitis media patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiogram of Klebsiella pneumoniae among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspects Attending Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kano

Abdullahi Mas’ud, S. D. Salwa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/44507

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the antibiogram of Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumoniae) among pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) suspected patients attending IDH Kano, Kano metropolis, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study is descriptive cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: In this research of the 300 TB suspected patients referred to infectious diseases hospital Kano were used for the study. Sputum specimens collected were analysed at Medical Laboratory Science Department, School of Health Technology Kano, Kano state, Nigeria. Sputum samples were stored at 4ºC if not analysed at the same day. The work was carried out between January to June, 2017.

Methodology: Early morning sputum samples were examined microscopically and cultured on blood, chocolate and MacConkey’s agars, followed by confirmation of presumptive colonies using different biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility studies were done by the disc diffusion method using Ceftriaxone (30µg), Ciprofloxacin (5µg), Gentamicin (10µg), Ofloxacin (5µg), Cloxacillin (5µg), Co-trimoxazole (25µg), Augumentin (30µg), Cefuroxime (30µg) and Ceftazidime (30µg). 

Results: Of the 28 isolates Ceftriaxone 28(100.0%), Ciprofloxacin 20(71.5%), Gentamicin 12(85.7%) and Ofloxacin 11(78.6%) had significant (P > 0.05) activity against K. pneumoniae, followed by Cefuroxime 18(64.3%) and Ceftazidime 16(57.1%) with moderate activity while Augumentin 4(12.3%), Cloxacillin 0(0.0%), and Co-trimoxazole 0(0.0%) had poor activity. against K. pneumoniae isolates. Out of 224 Bacteria isolated 60 (26.8%) were Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) 20(16.1%) were Staphylococcus aureas (S. aureas), 28(12.5%) were K. pneumoniae, 24(10.7%) were Haemophillus influenzae (H. influenzae), 24(8.9%) were Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) and 56(25.0%) were other bacterial isolates. However, their relationship was not statistically significant (P < 0.05). 

Conclusion: In conclusion, Klebsiella pneumoniae was recorded to be the most prevalent 28(12.5%) bacterial isolate among TB suspected patients. All the K. pneumoniae isolates resisted to co-trimoxazole and cloxacillin. While Ceftriaxone 28(100.0%), Gentamicin 24(85.7%), Ofloxacin 22(78.6%), Ciprofloxacin 20(71.5%), remained the most effective against K. pneumoniae isolates tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dyes on Multi-drug Resistant S. enterica Harbouring Plasmids

E. N. Onyenwe, O. E. Adeleke, S. Dike Kelechi, O. Echeta Maryrose, C. Okoro Jude

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/14585

Aim: To determine and compare the antiseptic property of dyes such as acridine orange and ethidium bromide on Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica in this part of Nigeria.

Study Design: The stool samples of patients with symptoms of enteric fever were isolated and investigated from four hospitals in the south-east region of Nigeria

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nigerian Institute for Medical Research, Lagos, between August and November, 2012.

Methodology: The 100 S. enterica were recovered using microbact® identification kit-12E. PCR analysis and chromogenic nitrocefin sticks were used to detect isolates with Blactx-M and β-lacatamase enzyme respectively, while alkaline lysis method was adopted for the plasmid extraction. Tube dilutions of the subinhibitory concentration of the dyes and the antibiotics Minimum Inhibitory Concentration [MIC] susceptibility were used to determine the antiseptic effects of the dyes on the isolates.

Results: The S. enterica recovered indicated direct dissemination of these organisms among hospitalized patients and transfers of R-plasmids. Low molecular weight plasmids recovered were 9(9%), 13(13%) of the MDR S. enterica harbored BlaCTX-M gene. Few strains of S. enterica had increased susceptibility to the MIC’s of the antibiotics at 1.25 µg/ml and 0.625 µg/ml of the ethidium bromide dyes, while acridine dyes had reduced effects of the resistant plasmid at 2.50 µg/ml.

Conclusion: These dyes were confirmed to display an antiseptic activity on the resistant plasmid DNA of S. enterica with MDR. There were high significant differences at (p<0.05), in the performance of the selected antibiotics on the MDR S. enterica.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of a River Mud as substrate for Biological Generation of Electricity in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

David N. Ogbonna, Obande O. Orinya

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/44112

Aim: This study investigates the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of a river mud (sediments) as substrates for biological generation of electricity.

Study Design: The study employed standard microbiological and physio-chemical experimental design and data interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study: Otamiri River, Etche Local Government Area of Rivers State, April  to December, 2017.

Methodology: River sediments were collected from three different sampling stations at Otamiri River in Isu (E-510627.84; N-131566.60), Odagwa (E-520087.04; N-113278.48) and Imo River in Umuebulu (E-521113.64; N-112436.74) in Etche Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. The samples from these stations were analysed using standard analytical methods.

Results: The results obtained show that the sediment had its particle size ranged from sand to silt and are porous. The pH of the sediments were acidic across the sampling points with the values ranging between 6.03 to 6.24, while conductivity values ranged from 53 to 75.4uS/cm. Nitrate content of the sediment ranged from 4.3 to 5.9mg/kg. The presence of organic content, phosphate, sulphate and total hydrocarbon were also recorded in good quantities. Microbial counts in sediment samples were carried out for both rainy and dry seasons. The results showed that the Total heterotrophic bacterial count from sediment samples from Otamiri at Isu River had more counts with 4.8x106 colony forming units per gram of the sample while Odagwa River had 2.9x106 cfu/g and Imo River had 2.2x106 cfu/g during the rainy season.  Fungal count was also higher at Isu River with 6.8x105 cfu/g while Imo had the least count with 4.3x105 cfu/g. Similar trend was observed in the dry season for all stations with Isu River recording the highest with 3.8x105 cfu/g; Odagwa River had 3.2x105 cfu/g while Imo River had 2.2x105 cfu/g. Fungal count for dry season was similar with Isu River having the highest count while the Imo River at Umuebulu River recorded the least count in the sediment mud samples. The results of the microbial counts obtained shows that river mud (sediments) support microbial growth and can be used as a substrate to support microorganisms as biocatalysts for the conversion of organic and inorganic materials for alternative energy production. This is possible if the microorganisms in the sediments metabolise or convert the bio-wastes (organic and inorganic materials) to produce electrical energy. This trend can promote economic growth for domestic use and industrialisation to attain energy security and promote sustainable development.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the sediments can serve as substrates to support microorganisms as biocatalysts for the conversion of organic and inorganic materials to generate electricity if the microbial fuel cell technology is employed. This is because the results show that the physicochemical properties of the sediments and microbial populations found in the substrates can elicit adequate reactions to stimulate the production of alternative energy for electricity in this process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS and aac (6')-Ib in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii

Sahar A. M. Ali, Reem M. M. Hassan, Sahar M. Khairat, Amira M. A. Salama

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/44295

Background: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial isolates is of great concern, especially to commonly used antimicrobials as Quinolones.

Aim of the Study: Estimation of the prevalence of quinolone-resistant P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii in various clinical specimens, detection and   characterization of the pattern of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes present.

Materials and Methods: Bacterial identification of P. aeruginosa (92) and A. baumannii (69) strains was performed using standard laboratory methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility to other antibiotic was determined by the standard Kirby- Bauer disk diffusion method. All collected quinolones resistant isolates (100) were identified and further subjected to conventional PCR for detection of quinolones resistant genes; namely qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS and aac (6’)-Ib, using specific primers. Sequencing were done for all PMQR positive strains using A BigDye Terminator v3.1 cycle sequencing kit. 

Results: PCR revealed 46% of examined quinolone-resistant isolates have one or more of PMQR genes, A. baumannii 28/58 (48.3%) and P. aeruginosa 18/42 (42.9%). The predominant gene detected was aac (6’)-Ib either alone or in combination with other genes. There was significant isolates harboring qnrS gene among P. aeuroginsa which was mainly isolated from outpatients. Sequencing of the PMQR positive strains has confirmed the results of PCR without detection of any new varients or disconcordant strains.   

Conclusions: The prevalence rate of quinolone-resistant P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii harboring PMQR genes is high in our hospitals. The acc(6)-1b gene is the PMQR predominant gene coding for quinolone resistance.