Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Assessment of Water Used by the Residents of Kabianga in Kericho, Kenya from the Different Sources

Kemboi Douglas, Joyce Mwangi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27557

Aim: The aim of the research was to assess water quality from different sources used by residents of Kabianga. 

Study Design: The research employed experimental design.

Methodology: Techniques used in this research project included test for indicator organism preferable E. coli, total viable count, and enumeration of filamentous fungi and yeasts. For bacteriological quality of the water, indicator organisms were used to indicate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms.

Results: The results showed that water obtained from springs and wells were safe for human usage and consumption as it was free from indicators of contamination. The presence of colorless colonies in well water was not considered hazardous because the colonies were well below the lethal colony number which is set to be a hundred colonies per plate. However the microbial populations identified showed that the river water was contaminated with E. coli an indicator of microbial contamination of water sources.

Conclusion: From the findings it can be concluded that river water is likely to be unsafe for use, especially to people who are immunocompromised as they may suffer from diarrheal related diseases. Spontaneous outbreaks related to water-borne diseases in these area, could also be attributed to increase in the number of indicator organisms. There is need for policy makers and implementers to initiate corrective measures to reduce contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotics Susceptibility Profile of Listeria species Isolated from Untreated Abattoir Wastewater in Akinyele, Ibadan, Nigeria and Its Implication on Public Health

O. I. Falodun, A. G. Rabiu, O. E. Fagade

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/28066

Introduction: The demand for meat to meet the need of increasing human population has led to increase in the abattoir activities. Untreated abattoir wastewaters which may constitute a public health threat due to the possibility of transmission of pathogens to humans are constantly being discharged into water bodies. Listeria is an emerging pathogen that is commonly associated with food infection and has been found to survive in water.

Aim: This study was carried out to determine the occurrence and antibiotic resistant pattern of Listeriaspecies isolated from abattoir wastewater in Akinyele, Ibadan. 

Materials and Methods: Wastewater samples were collected from the slaughter slab and drainage channels between May and June, 2015. Listeria species were isolated using Listeria Selective Agar Base with Listeria Selective Supplement and identification of the isolates was done using conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay using single antibiotic disks including ampicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ceftriazone, cloxacillin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Results: A total of 82 Listeria spp. were isolated comprising 58.5% and 41.5% from the slaughter slab and drainage respectively; all the isolates were resistant to ampicillin while 86.6%, 68.3% and 65.5% were resistant to ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanate and tetracycline respectively. In addition, 12.2% of the total isolates were resistant to a combination of six antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, ceftriazone, streptomycin, and trimetoprim/sulfamethozaxole) while only one isolate was resistant to eight or more antibiotics.

Conclusion: This study revealed that the Akinyele abattoir wastewater is a potential medium for the transmission of multi-drug resistant bacteria to humans. Hence, adequate measures should be put in place for the treatment of the abattoir wastewater before discharge into the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotyping Human Papillomavirus in Women Attending Cervical Cancer Screening Clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe

Takudzwa Matuvhunye, Racheal S. Dube- Mandishora, Nyasha Chin’ombe, Graham Chakafana, Joshua Mbanga, Edward Zumbika, Babill - Stray Pedersen

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/28481

Aim: To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes in women attending a cervical cancer screening VIAC (visual inspection with acetic acid) clinic.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: VIAC clinic at Parirenyatwa Referral Hospital in Harare in Zimbabwe between February and April 2015.

Methodology: Sexually active women were recruited and they provided their socio-demographic data and self-collected vaginal swabs. HIV status of the participants was determined. DNA was extracted from the swabs using the standard phenol-chloroform method. HPV DNA was detected using the standard consensus MY09/11-GP5+/GP6+ nested polymerase chain reaction. Amplicons were sequenced and sequences analyzed using bioinformatics tools to identify the HPV genotypes.

Results: Sixty women were recruited. Their age ranged from 21-83 years, with a mean of 40.1 years. Most of the women were married and resided in the urban areas. Of the 60 participants, 50% (30/60) were HIV-positive. The prevalence of HPV genotypes in the study subjects was 56.7% (34/60). HPVs were most prevalent in women aged 30 years and below, and became less prevalent as the age increased. The predominant genotypes detected were HPV-16, -58, -52, -45, -18, -33, -51, -6, -81, -11, -70, -62, -32 and -40.

Conclusion: A number of HPV genotypes were detected in half of women tested. There was no significance association between risk-factors (parity, level of education, residence, history of STI, contraceptive use and sexual debut) and HPV infection. The findings of this study showed that consensus nested PCR and DNA sequencing could be used to detect HPV genotypes in women in cervical cancer screening programs. Although this method is sensitive, it is inefficient at detecting multiple HPV infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microflora Imbalance Related Vaginal Infections among Female Senior High School Students in Navrongo, Ghana

Eunice Essel, Yaw Frimpong Mensah, Seth Asamoah, Grace Adzo Motey, James Owusu- Kwarteng

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27575

Vaginal infections affect most females during their lifetime, with approximately 50% having two or more episodes of vaginal candidiasis. The study was conducted to assess the incidence of Candida, bacteria and Lactic acid bacteria deficiency related vaginal infections among female senior high school students. Seventy-two high vaginal swabs were obtained from consenting students for laboratory analysis and a structured questionnaire administered to assess symptoms, risk factors and demographic information. Methods employed in laboratory analysis included wet mount, whiff test, clue cell test, pH test, Gram staining and culture. The results revealed 40% (29) of participants were infected with Candida while 14% (10) were diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis. Lactic acid bacteria which are supposed to be a normal flora in a healthy vagina were isolated in only 29% (21) of the participant who were between the ages of 14 to 22 years. For symptoms, 100% (72) of the participants had vaginal discharge, 68% (49), 63% (45) and 18% (13) had itching, irritation and burning sensation respectively. Among the risk factors, sexual activity recorded the highest 76% (55), 61% (44) douched and 32% (23) were on antibiotics. The incidence of Candida vaginitis especially was high in the study population and this may be due to few participants having Lactic acid bacteria isolated from their vagina and this may also explain the incidence of bacterial vaginosis.   

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Some Enterobacteria from Retailed Convenience Foods

A. Abiodun Onilude, C. Felicia Adesina, A. Omolola Oluboyede, A. Abimbola Olajide, Olajumoke Alao Nwaechefu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/28795

Meat pie and Fish roll samples from five different local government areas (LGAs) in Ibadan, Nigeria were analysed microbiologically for presence of Enterobacteriaceae and other common food borne pathogens. Sampling was done twice for three months and plating of food samples was carried out by pour plate and membrane filter techniques on different bacteriological media for Total plate and Coliform counts on samples. Identification was done based on colonial morphology, Gram’s reaction and biochemical and sugar fermentation characteristics of isolates. 1483 bacterial counts were obtained from samples evaluated. Identification of isolates showed that 14 genera of microorganisms were represented out of which Salmonella spp and Proteus vulgaris from the Family Enterobacteriaceae represented about 12% of total number obtained. Others included Flavobacterium spp, Pseudomonas spp, Aeromonas spp and Moraxellaspp. Gram positive bacteria among isolates were: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus spp, Lactobacillus spp., Norcadia spp, Microbacterium spp, Bacillus spp, and Streptococcus spp. Yeast isolates among the microorganisms were identified as Rhodotorulla spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Percentage occurrences of isolates from road side samples were higher than that of Eatery samples in all the LGAs, roadside Fish roll from Oluyole had highest percentage of Salmonea spp (42.2%), while that from Ibadan North-East had highest percentage of Proteus spp. (28.11%). Roadside Meat pies obtained from Lagelu showed highest percentage of Salmonella spp (34.3%) and those from Ibadan South-west showed highest percentage of Proteus spp (31%). High occurrence of microorganisms in some of the convenience food samples requires urgent attention by health policy makers and all stakeholders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of Nitrogen on Soybean Field Amended with Poultry Manure

M. O. Adigun, O. A. Babalola

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27759

A field experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Agriculture, College of Plant Science and Crop Production farm Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, to determine the effect of nitrogen releases from poultry manure, phosphorus source and bradyrhizobium inoculation on soybean (Glycine max L.) growth and yield. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three treatments consisting of poultry manure (0, 5, 10, tons/ha), phosphorus source (single super phosphate, mycorrhiza) and bradyrhizobium replicated three times. The poultry manure was applied two weeks before planting, phosphorus source and bradyrhizobium were applied at planting. Agronomic parameters in soybean were assessed at 4 to 14 weeks after planting (WAP) forthrightly: leaf area, stem girth and plant height all showed the same trend from the analyses i.e. not significant; effect of interaction of poultry manure, phosphorus source and bradyrhizobium inoculation on soil nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate), at 4 weeks after planting, single super phosphate and 5 tons of poultry manure had the highest effect on ammonium nitrogen. While at 8 weeks after planting, mycorrhiza and 0 ton of poultry manure had the highest effect on nitrate nitrogen and at 8 weeks after planting, single super phosphate and 0 ton of poultry manure had the highest effect on nitrate nitrogen. Mycorrhizal gives higher plant, girth and yield of soybean production, and increased soil nitrogen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Streptomyces nobilis C51 Suppresses Gray Mold Caused by Botrytis cinerea in Tomato

Beibei Jiang, Yali Huang, Zhenhua Jia, Shuishan Song

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27284

This study sought to develop a biological control agent against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea in tomato using a strain of Streptomyces, which showed significant antagonistic activity against B. cinerea. Such strain (C51) was screened by dual culture method from a total of 78 actinomycetes and was identified as Streptomyces nobilis by morphological, biochemical and molecular analysis. The influence of different environmental conditions, such as temperature degree, pH range and medium type on the expression of the antifungal activity was thoroughly examined. The metabolites involved in the antagonistic action of C51 strain showed to be produced independently by the presence of B. cinerea. We also found that the culture filtrate of C51 potently inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea, and morphological changes such as hyphal swelling and abnormal shapes were observed using culture filtrates. The antifungal activity of the culture broth was stable across a broad range of temperatures (28-121℃) and pH (pH 2-12), suggesting a wide range of applications of Streptomyces nobilis C51. The results of greenhouse test showed that Streptomyces nobilis C51 had the same disease inhibition effect as well as azoxystrobin against B. cinerea. The current observations could support the application of Streptomyces nobilis C51 as a promise biocontrol agent.