Open Access Short communication

Seroprevalence of New Castle Disease Virus in Local Chickens from Sokoto, Nigeria

B. R. Alkali, A. B. Shuaibu, I. Bello, M. D. Usman

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/31362

Newcastle disease constitutes a major constraint to the rural poultry production system in Nigeria. This study was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in local chickens from Sokoto live bird market, Sokoto, Nigeria, through antibody detection using Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). An overall seroprevalence rate of 14.72% (34/231) was recorded in this study. Comparison was made between the seroprevalence in sexes and between ages (p>0.05). Female birds had higher prevalence (15.32%) compared to males (14.02%). Higher prevalence was recorded in young chicks (18.75%) and least in adults (13.66%) p >0.05. The study indicated that Newcastle disease is present amongst the population, and sex and age of the birds had no significant influence on the seroprevalence of NDV in the study area. Hence, there should be an improvement in vaccination campaign against Newcastle disease in local chickens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Barbing Equipments: Tools for Transmission of Tinea Capitis

Ofonime M. Ogba, David E. Bassey, Oluwayemisi A. Olorode, Maurice Mbah

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/31091

This efficacy of sterilization and cleaning methods used in the barbing salons and the possibility of those equipments acting as vehicles of transmission of fungal pathogens from one customer to another was assessed in this study. Thirty barbing saloons were randomly selected from the five wards in Calabar South. One hundred and fifty samples were aseptically collected using sterile swab sticks to brush out debris from combs, hair brushes and sterilized clippers into sterile paper envelopes. Samples were subjected to microscopy, culture and physiological tests. The recovery rate of fungal organisms from barbing equipments was 52(34.7%). Dermatophytes recovery rates was 40(26.7%) and non dermatophytes recovery rates was 12(8.0%). There was a statistically significant relationship between dermatophytes and barbing equipments recovered from (χ2 = 25.0, p =0.01). Trichophyton interdigitale 12(30.0%). was the most common dermatophtye recovered from barbing equipments, followed by Trichophyton rubrum 9(22.5%). Malassezia species 5(41.6%) was the most common non dermatophytes recovered, followed by Aspergillus flavus 3(25.0%). Hair brushes were the most contaminated equipments (60.0%) by dermatophytes while the least contaminated were the hair clippers 17.5%. Dermatophytes and non dermatophytes were recovered from barbing equipments which depicts that they could serve as vehicles for transmission of fungal infections. Although the clippers were sterilized by all Barbers, dermatophytes and few non dermatophytes were still recovered from them. This points to incomplete sterilization either by disinfectant inefficacy or methods inefficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Emilia pratermissa Leaf Extracts on Organisms Isolated from Patients with Otitis Media Attending Federal Medical Centre Owo and Ondo States Specialist Hospital Akure

C. O. Afolayan, A. K. Onifade, P. O. Akindele

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/31241

The antimicrobial activity of methanol, hot water and cold water extracts of the leaf of Emilia pratermissawas evaluated against organisms isolated from patients with otitis media using agar well diffusion method. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing using disc diffusion method. In addition, antifungal assay was conducted on the test fungi using agar well diffusion techniques. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the tube dilution technique. All the experiments were carried out in triplicates and data obtained from the study were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). From the results, highest inhibition of methanol extract was recorded against Staphylococcus aureus with a zone of inhibition value of 29.00 mm while the least zone of inhibition value of 17.33 mm was recorded on Streptococcus pyogenes. For hot water extracts, the highest inhibition was recorded on Streptococcus pneumoniae with 24.67 mm and least inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus with 16.67 mm. For cold water extracts, the highest zone of inhibition was recorded for Escherichia coli with zone of inhibition value of 27.00 mm and lowest on Proteus mirabilis with 17.33 mm. For antifungal activity, methanol extract recorded the highest inhibition value of 11.67 for Aspergillus niger while the least zone of inhibition value of 7.33 mm was recored for Candida albicans.The highest inhibition by cold water extract was recorded for Aspergillus flavus with a zone of inhibition value of 12.33 mm while the least zone of inhibition value of 5.33 mm was recorded for Candida albicans. For hot water extract, Aspergillus niger had the highest zone of inhibition with 12.67 mm and least for Candida albicans with 3.33 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of extracts ranged from 3.125 mg/ml to 12.5 mg/ml for the test organisms. The antimicrobial activity of the three extracts inhibited the growth of the test organisms as much as that of the commercial antibiotics. Antimicrobial potential of Emilia pratermissa may be a source of new bioactive compounds for drug development, and also suggest that the plant could be promising in traditional phytomedicine for the treatment of otitis media infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancement of Growth and Bioactivities of Probiotic Bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus as Influenced by Lactalbumin Hydrolysate and Inulin Supplementation in Skimmed Milk Medium

A. R. Shyam Sundar, Lalitha Vaidyanathan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/30931

Aims: To determine the probiotic potential of Streptococcus thermophilus and effects of lactalbumin hydrolysate (whey protein) and inulin (prebiotics) supplementation in the production medium on the growth and bioactivity profile of S. thermophilus under different pH and temperature conditions.

Place and Duration of Study: The research work was carried out in Microbiology laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, India between May 2015 and August 2015.

Methodology: S. thermophilus NCDC 74 was initially screened for better growth in three production media. The parameters examined in the study were specific growth rate and yield coefficient, anti-oxidant, anti-adhesive and anti-pathogenic activities, antibiotic and drug resistance and acidic pH tolerance. The collected data were analysed with IBM.SPSS statistics software 23.0 Version.

Results: The skimmed milk medium showed maximum growth of 8.56 x1010 CFU/ml compared to two synthetic media with lactose and sucrose as carbon sources which contained 2.34 ×1010 CFU/ml and 1.19 ×1010 CFU/ml respectively. The initial pH of 6.5 and temperature of 42°C have been found to be optimum for the bacterial activities. The specific growth rate and yield coefficient were positively influenced in a significant manner by the experimental groups, except that inulin addition increased only the microbial load and specific growth rate was 0.26 hr-1 which was the same as that of control. The experimental conditions also enhanced the anti-oxidant, anti-adhesive, acidic pH tolerance abilities of S. thermophilus. S. thermophilus exhibited maximum anti-adhesive activity of 56.5% against Candida albicans at 42°C compared to its activity of 26.1% and 33.9% against Salmonella typhi and staphylococcus aureus respectively. S. thermophilus was resistant to amphotericin and omeprazole, but sensitive to amoxicillin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. The experimental conditions influenced the anti-pathogenic activity of S. thermophilus against Salmonella typhi positively.

Conclusion: Scale up of the production conditions would result in large scale production of highly efficient probiotic strain, to exert increased beneficial actions in human and applications in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Studies on the Biodegradation of Crude Oil-polluted Soil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alternaria Species Isolated from Unpolluted Soil

Okwute Ojonoma Loretta, Okpiaifo Samuel, Giwa Holy Johnson, Stephen Emmanuel

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/31918

Aims: To examine the efficiency and compare the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alternaria sp to degrade hydrocarbons found in crude oil-polluted soil.

Study Design: The study made use of a purposive sampling method.

Place and Duration: Department of Microbiology, University of Abuja and Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO), Abuja between May and November, 2015.

Methodology: Soil samples were collected from non-contaminated garden in Gwagwalada, Abuja and were screened for the presence of these organisms using spread plate technique. These microorganisms were confirmed via morphological characteristics, biochemical tests and molecular techniques involving primer specific polymerase chain reaction. Degradation of crude oil by the bacterium and fungus was done by inoculating fresh cultures of these organisms in conical flasks containing Bushnell and Haas (1941) media supplemented with 5% v/v crude oil and incubated appropriately. The level of hydrocarbon degradation was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS) analysis.

Results: Alternaria sp was almost twice as effective in degrading octane and decane (57.48%, 78.28%) in the sample as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32.20%, 35.62%) respectively. However, the P. aeruginosa was more effective than Alternaria sp. in degrading dodecane and tetradecane by 63.33% and 100%, in comparison to the 45.70% and 54.27% by the fungus. The highest percentage of residual oil in the reaction vessel containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa was octane and decane at 67.8% and 64.38%. In the case of Alternariasp., dodecane and pentadecane had the highest residual oil fractions at 54.10% and 48.71% after 21 days.

Conclusion: The result of this study indicates that organisms have the potential for bioremediation of crude oil and could be employed in large scale to remediate crude oil contaminated sites in consortium with known microorganisms possessing the same ability.