Open Access Original Research Article

Survey and Identification of Bacteria and Fungi Associated with Two Dumpsites in Akure Metropolis

I. A. Simon-Oke, T. Alade

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/29376

This study was conducted to survey and identify bacteria and fungi associated withb two major dumpsites in Akure metropolis from the months of April, June and August, 2014.     Soil samples were taken from the two waste-dump sites at different intervals. A random sample of the two soils were taken into two different clean nylon bags and taken for culture on sterile and freshly prepared Nutrient Agar (NA) and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). All techniques were carried-out under manufacturers’ instructions standard laboratory conditions. The inoculation was done in triplicate and recorded as average total  viable bacteria and fungi in the soil sample.Nine (9) different bacteria and fungi were isolated, characterised and identified from the two dumpsites. The bacteria identified were Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella sp, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Proteus vulgaris and P. mirabilis while the fungi identified were Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Fusarium moniliformisMucor mucedo, Candida albican, Rhizopus stolonifer, Neurospora sp. and Penicillium digitatum of all the organisms isolated during the period of survey, S. aureus had the highest occurrence of 32.00 cfu and 24.25 cfu in Igbatoro and Fiwasaye dumpsite respectively while Neurospora sp recorded highest occurrence of 5.50 sfu in Igbatoro and A. niger recorded highest occurrence of 4.25 sfu at Fiwasaye dumpsite. All the organisms isolated are suggestive of the public health hazard posed by the study areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Effect of Some Plant Extracts on Plant Pathogens that Cause Food Spoilage

B. A. Oso, T. A. Ogunnusi, M. E. Fagbemi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/42642

Aims: To determine the preservative effect of methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica, Euphorbia heterophylla and Tithonia diversifolia on fruits as an alternative to chemicals being used for preservation.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Biological Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti between September 2017 and February 2018.

Methodology:  Pour plate method was used in the isolation of microorganisms from the fruits used and this were pineapple, banana, watermelon pawpaw and orange.  

Results: Bacteria isolated were Acinectobacter ursingii, Bacillus subtilis, Bordetella trematum, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium oxysporum, Neurospora crassa, Penicillum notatum and Rhizopus stolonifer. Different concentrations of the plant extracts (100 mg/ml, 80 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 30 mg/ml) were used on the test organisms and zones of inhibitions were determined which increased with increase in concentration. Methanol extracts of the bark of Azadirachta indica and Tithonia diversifolia leaves had greater antibacterial activity as they reduced the growth all the bacterial isolates especially Staphylococcus aureus at 100 mg/ml with a zone of inhibition of 41.00c mm and 17.75b mm respectively. All the extracts were not active against Acinectobacter urisingii.  All concentrations of the methanol extract of the bark of Azadirachta indica and Tithonia diversifolia inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger and Penicillum notatum for seven and four days respectively. Only 100 mg/ml of methanol extract of the bark of Azadirachta indica inhibited Fusarium oxysporum for seven days. The shelf life of watermelon treated with all the extracts was extended for eight days. That of pineapple, pawpaw, banana and orange was extended for four days using all the extracts.

Conclusion: These results support the potential use of these plant extracts in the management of diseases caused by tested plant pathogenic organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Corynebacterium Species Causing Urinary Tract Infections

Kuthan Robert, Sawicka-Grzelak Anna, Mlynarczyk Grażyna

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/43099

Aims: To determine the prevalence and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of individual Corynebacterium species isolated from patients with urinary tract infections.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Microbiology, Infant Jesus Teaching Hospital, Warsaw, Poland from January 2010 to December 2016.

Methodology: This retrospective analysis included Corynebacterium strains derived from 211 urine samples. Microbial identification had been performed with the use of biochemical panels and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted according to the Polish Reference Center for Antimicrobial Susceptibility and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines.

Results: The predominant Corynebacterium species isolated from female urine were C. coyleae, C. aurimucosum, and C. amycolatum. The following species: Arcanobacterium haemolyticumC. G1, C. muciefacinesC. propinquumC. pseudodiphtheriticum, and C. renale were identified only in urine cultures from female patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility rates were 41.9% for penicillin, 53.4% for ciprofloxacin, 83.3% for gentamycin, and 77.8% for tetracycline with all the evaluated strains susceptible to vancomycin.

The number of the Corynebacteria species isolated from urine samples consecutively raised from 4 in 2010 up to 87 in the last analysed year.

Conclusion: The observed increase in the number of Corynebacterium species isolated from urine samples over the years indicates the important role of these bacteria in the urinary tract infection epidemiology, especially in women. Therefore, novel diagnostic procedures should be developed for the specimens from patients with urinary tract infections, especially in the case of transplant recipients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Surface Water Gram-negative Bacterial Flora as a Reservoir of Heterogeneous Plasmid and Multi-drug Resistance Phenomenon

Fatema Akter, Md. Ishtiak Rashid, Sourav Biswas, Nazneen Jahan, Zia Uddin Ahmed, M. Hasibur Rahman

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/43609

Aims:  Present study highlights the diversity of Gram-negative bacterial community at surface water and their potential as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. We also explore the potential of this heterogeneous community to host plasmids of diverse origin.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Microbiology, Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh during a period from July 2016 to June 2017.

Methodology: Water samples were cultured onto MacConkey plates for selective isolation of Gram-negative bacteria and identified according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by disc-diffusion method followed by determination of MIC assay by agar dilution method. Plasmid extraction was done according to the hot alkaline method.

Results: A total of 197 representative isolates from 310 water sample culture, 110 were identified as E. coli and 87 as non- E. coli belonged to 14 different species of the genera Escherichia,  Enterobacter, Citrobacter,  Klebsiella, Serratia, Proteus, Kluyvera, Obesumbacterium and Yersinia. Susceptibility test showed highest incidence of resistance phenomenon against amoxicillin (66.5%), followed by cefixime (56.8%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (33.5%), ciprofloxacin (20.3%), tetracycline (19.79%) and gentamicin (18.78%). A notable proportion of the isolates (33.9%) showed multi-antibiotic resistance (MAR) phenomenon. The occurrence of MAR phenotype was almost twice (42%) as much as in E. coli population in compared to non-E. coli (22%) population. Plasmid extraction revealed that majority (57%) of the isolates contained plasmids with 59 different profile, incidence and diversity being higher in E. coli population.

Conclusion:  The study indicates that surface-water Gram-negative bacterial flora is a reservoir of plasmids and multidrug resistance gene. E. coli population seems to be more potential in compared to non- E. coli population as a reservoir of both multi-antibiotic resistance genes and heterogeneous plasmids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Same-Day Diagnosis versus the Conventional ‘Spot-Morning-Spot’ Using Ziehl-Neelsen and Fluorescent Microscopy: A Cross-Sectional Study

Araya Masresha, Daniel Mekonen, Yosef Gashaw, Feker Asera, Chandrashekhar Unakal

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/34363

Introduction: Diagnosis of spot-morning-spot (SMS) smear microscopy is inconvenient for patients, who have to make multiple visits to health facilities to submit multiple sputum specimens over two days and may visit also for an extra day to collect the result. Optimization of smear and microscopy will decrease the inconvenience of the patients and possibly increase the detection rate.

Objective: To determine the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of a proposed “same day" strategy of one-day diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and compare it to the conventional method, as culture is reference standard.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to August, 2013 from University of Gondar Hospital [UoGH] and Debretabor Rural Hospital [DTH], North West Ethiopia. A total of 180 TB suspected patients were enrolled. Patients suspected for TB submitted SMS samples [conventional method]. One additional sample was collected ≥1h after the first sputum (the proposed same-day method) and one sample selected and cultured. Open Epi data & Mc Nemar’s tests were used to compare the test.

Result: The sensitivity of the conventional method (27/160) was 81.8%, 95%CI (65.6-91.4) and that of proposed spot method (25/160), was 75.8%, 95%CI (58.9- 87.2) by Ziehl-Neelson (ZN) but the difference was statistically significant; P-value = 0.298.  Their specificity was similar 100 % (97.1-100); P-value = 1.00. The light emitted diode (LED-FM) sensitivity was 84.9% (69.1- 93.4) Vs 81.8% (65.6- 91.4) in conventional and proposed method respectively. The difference of sensitivity wasn’t significant; P-value=0.568. The specificity was [84.9 %(69.1-93.4) Vs 81.8 %(65.6-91.4)] conventional Vs proposed same day method respectively; P- value=0.155.

Conclusion and Recommendation: Since the sensitivity and specificity was statistically non-difference in conventional and proposed spot-next spot specimen of ZN and LED-FM method, but 6% difference in sensitivity in ZN methods. This difference happens in two cases, this may be due to poor sample preparation (especially first-day next spot smear). But this study shows, it is possible to diagnosis PTB in one day by giving extensive and comprehensive training for laboratory technicians and technologist, and the practicability needs further research.