Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of HIV+ and HIV- Tuberculosis Patients Followed and Treated at the Regional Hospital of Oyem, Northern Gabon: A Two-Year Retrospective Study

Cédric Sima Obiang, Thiéry Ndong Mba, Hilaire Kenguele Moundounga, Pelche Bertrand Owono Mezui, Arnaud Brice Pambo–Pambo, Joseph Privat Ondo, Louis-Clément Obame Engonga

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i81335

Background: The objective of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of HIV+ and HIV- tuberculosis patients followed and  treated at the Oyem Regional Hospital Centre (ORHC).

Materials and Methods: During this study conducted between January 2019 and December 2021, data collection was based on the exploitation of medical records and registers of results from the medical analysis laboratory of the regional hospital of Oyem, in which there were personal data (gender and age) of the patients, the status of HIV infection, clinical characteristics (pulmonary or extra pulmonary TB), and finally, the therapeutic outcomes of the patients after anti-tuberculosis and antiretroviral treatment. Binomial test following the Normal distribution was used to find an association between the percentages of extrapulmonary TB and TB+/HIV+ co-infection.

Results: In this study, 128 confirmed TB cases were selected. While 54 (42.19%) were co-infected with TB+/HIV+, 74 patients (57.81%) were monoinfected with TB+/HIV+.  Among all these patients, 93 (72.66%) were reported to have extra pulmonary TB and 35 (27.34%) had pulmonary TB. A normal binomial test showed that TB+/HIV+ co-infection was significantly associated with extrapulmonary TB (p=0.04). Patients were put on anti-tuberculosis treatment according to the manufacturers' indications. Despite a total of 15 deaths (8.93%) in both mono- and co-infected patients, there was a favourable outcome, with 35 patients (27.34%) declared cured. With 8 deaths, mortality was higher in the co-infected than in the non-HIV infected TB patients who recorded 7 deaths.

Conclusion: By indicating a relatively high prevalence of HIV infection in TB patients, this study showed that TB+/HIV+ co-infection was associated with extra pulmonary TB, the severe form of the disease, and increased mortality in patients, hence the need to strengthen joint activities to control this co-infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Identification and Evaluation of the Plant Growth Promoting Activities of Endophytic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to Stimulate Growth of Clover Plants under Salt Stress

Amal, A. Ali, Neama H. Osman

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 7-20
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i81336

Two endophytic bacterial isolates were obtained from root nodules of clover plants grown in salt affected clay soil of Egypt. The isolates were closely linked to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains IPR-Pv696 and 262XG2 based on the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes, and deposited in GenBank with accession numbers OM980221.1 (AM1) and OM980223.1 (AM2) respectively. The isolates were evaluated for their potential to promote plant growth. The results revealed that the two isolates of S. maltophilia strains (IPR-Pv696 and 262XG2) respectively exhibited production for indole-3- acetic acid (30.26 & 31.15 µg/ml), exopolysaccharides (13.57 & 13.68 g/l), nitrogen fixation activity and they solubilize the phosphate (278 & 208 mg/l) and potassium (33.5 & 32.9 µg/ml). In a field trial, these two isolates increased clover plant growth, chlorophyll, carbohydrates content and nutrients uptake while lowering proline levels. Hence this highlights its application to be exploited as biofertilizer by leading to sustainable agriculture. This could be a promising inoculant for many other crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Susceptibility Studies of the Extract, Fraction and Cream Formulation of the Leaf of Musa paradisiaca Linn against Known Dermatophytes

Asuquo, Ememobong Gideon, Udobi, Chinweizu Ejikeme, Eyibio, Okokon Okon

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 21-29
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i81337

Aim: This study was aimed at investigating the in vitro susceptibility of known dermatophytes to Musa paradisiaca leaf extract.

Methodology: The antifungal activity of the methanol extract, aqueous fraction and cream formulation of Musa paradisiaca leaf was established by agar well diffusion method while minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by broth microdilution and broth macrodilution methods respectively.

Results: Results obtained show that all the test organisms had varying degrees of susceptibility which is comparable to that of a standard drug, ketoconazole. Microsporum audounii exhibited the lowest MIC of 25 mg/mL for the aqueous fraction and 50 mg/mL for the cream formulation. The MFC/MIC ratio determined indicates the fungicidal potential of the plant.

Conclusion: The in vitro susceptibility of M. paradisiaca leaf extract to known dermatophytes is an indication of the possible use of the leaf as a potential for the treatment of skin infections due to the tested organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Factors Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Women in Senegal

Safietou Ngom-Cisse, Assane Dieng, Omar Gassama, Habsa Diagne-Samb, Moustapha Cisse, Serigne Mbaye Lo Ndiaye, Alioune Tine, Farba Karam, Gora Lo, Awa Ba-Diallo, Aïssatou Gaye-Diallo, Coumba Toure-Kane, Halimatou Diop-Ndiaye, Cheikh Saad-Bouh Boye, Makhtar Camara

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 30-39
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i81338

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with a high risk of complications, particularly during pregnancy.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of BV in pregnant women in Dakar, Senegal, and to identify its associated risk factors.

Patients and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2020 to March 2021 in pregnant women with 34 to 38 weeks of gestation and seen for their routine prenatal consultation at the Nabil Choucair health center in Dakar, Senegal. Vaginal swabs were taken and examined using the Nugent scoring system for the diagnosis of the BV. Data analysis on SPSS (version 25) was done using the chi-square test to measure the strength of association. A value of p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: BV was found in 28.0% (112/400) of the screened women with a median age 24 (21-29) years. A pH >4.5 predictive of BV was found in 80.4% (90/112) of samples. BV was associated with vaginal candidiasis in 49.1% (55/112) while Trichomonas vaginitis was found in 1.8% (02/112). In 80.4% (90/112) of affected women, BV was caused by Gardnerella vaginalis. Mobiluncus spp. was found in 19.6% (22/112) pregnant women in association with G. vaginalis. Symptoms characterized by episodes of pruritus, pelvic pain, burning and/or dyspareunia were seen among 59.8% (67/112) of these women with BV while 40.1% (45/112) of them reported no symptoms.

Conclusion: In view of these results and in order to reduce gestational complications and adverse outcomes in the newborn, screening for BV in pregnant women should be favored in developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Phenotypic Characterization of Lytic Bacteriophage with Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Caroline Antunes do Nascimento, Milena Zanoello Bertuol, Luana Pasqualotto, Elis Presser Püttov, Fernando Pilotto, Luciana Ruschel dos Santos, Laura Beatriz Rodrigues

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 40-48
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i81340

Aims: To perform the isolation and phenotypic characterization of bacteriophage with lytic activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To demonstrate that this type of viral agent can be isolated from the environment and used for the biocontrol of resistant bacterial types, such as  Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Study Design: This study was an experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at, Bacteriology and Mycology Laboratory in the Veterinary Hospital at the School of Agricultural Sciences, Innovation and Business  of the University of Passo Fundo (ESAN/UPF) and Center for Diagnosis and Research in Animal Health of the University of Passo Fundo (CDSA/UPF), between April 2022 and June 2022.

Methodology: Samples of untreated water were inoculated with the host bacterium strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 in an enriched media After the incubation period in, a phage filtrate was obtained by centrifugation followed by filtration. We verified the presence of bacteriophages using spot test and we carried out its purification by the method of sterile toothpick plate transfer on bacterial overlay semi-solid agar. Amplification was performed using an SM buffer elution procedure to produce a stock of viral material. Through assays in Petri dishes with bacterial overlay, we performed titration and phenotypic characterization regarding the lysis spectrum and efficiency of phage infection in the host.

Results: We managed to isolate a morphologically characterized lytic bacteriophage with approximately 1 mm of diameter, high clarity in the inhibition area, the presence of halo and well-demarcated edges. The bacteriophage, named as Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage UPF_PaBP1, demonstrated the infection capacity of the target bacteria in all tested dilutions and a stock preparation with a titre of 6.5 x 10⁸ PFU/ml was obtained for future use.

Conclusion: The isolated phage showed strong lytic activity against the bacterial host, a finding that nourishes our expectations regarding the use of this phage as a biocontrol agent and phage therapy.