Open Access Original Research Article

The Antibacterial Effect of Carica papaya L. Extracts and Their Synergistic Effect with Antibiotic and Non-antibiotic Drugs

E. Femi Francis, Vimala Jose

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/28042

Aims: Antibacterial activity of Carica papaya leaf and seed extracts, their synergism with antibiotic and non-antibiotic drugs and GC-MS analysis of extracts.

Study Design: Antibacterial activity was evaluated by Disc and Well diffusion method. Synergism with antibiotic drug, Gentamicin, and non-antibiotic drug, Vitamin C, were done by disc diffusion method. GC-MS analysis carried out in GC-MS equipment (Thermo Scientific Co.).

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted in Department of Botany and Department of Chemistry, St. Thomas’ College, Thrissur between December 2015 to April 2016.

Methodology: We include 3 gram negative (E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria in this study. Antibacterial activity of Carica papayaextracts (water, petroleum benzene, chloroform and ethanol extracts) against these bacteria’s were studied. Their synergisms with antibiotic as well as non antibiotic drugs were also evaluated. GC-MS analysis of all the extracts were also done.

Results: In the antibacterial activity assessment, all the four extracts of tender leaves were effective against E. coli than other plant materials. Seed extracts were more effective against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. In synergistic analysis, water and ethanol extracts of all the plant materials have an enhanced effect with gentamicin against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Yellow leaves extracts along with gentamicin exhibited an inhibition zone which is greater than that of gentamicin alone. Vitamin C gave enhanced activity against all the tested bacteria when combined with papaya extracts. GC-MS analysis proved that more number of bioactive components were present in petroleum benzene extract of tender leaves than all other extracts.

Conclusion: The results shows that Carica papaya extracts have antibacterial activity and when they were combined with antibiotic and non antibiotic drugs. In GC-MS analysis, tender leaves exhibited more bioactive components.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expression of Cytokines in Vaginal Secretion of Women with Yeast Colonization

L. N. Ossai- Chidi, O. K. Obunge, C. Nnadi, A. T. O. Awopeju, M. A. Alex- Wele

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27438

Aim: Comparative analysis of local expression of IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α was carried out to provide an insight to the extent and type of localized immune response associated with yeast colonization of the urogenital tract.

Study Design: Descriptive Observational study.

Place and Duration of the Study: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. January to June 2015.

Methodology: Cytokines were assayed using standard ELISA techniques. Cytokine concentrations were compared across multiple groups by use of the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's posts’ tests.

Results: There was a significantly elevated (p < 00.05) TNF-α concentration in women with yeast colonization (25.6 pg/ml) when compared to women with normal microbiota (22.2 pg/ml). There was also significant elevated level (p < 00.05) of average IL-10 concentrations in women with yeast infection (20.9 pg/ml) when compared to women with normal microbiota (14.8 pg/ml). However, there was no significant difference (p > 00.05) in the average IL-2 concentrations of women with yeast colonization and normal microbiota (10.4 pg/ml and 10.2 pg/ml respectively).

Conclusion: The study showed a significant pro-inflammatory immune response to yeast colonization, with a minimal humoral mediated immune response and no hypersensitivity. The local expression of TNF-α and IL-10 increases with the extent of yeast cell colonization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Aquatic Fungi and Their Role in Putrefaction of Allochthonous Leaves at Hanna Lake (Balochistan)

Saadullah Khan Leghari, Mudassir Asrar, Sana-ur- Rehman Sheikh, Tariq Ismail, Anwar Khan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27391

The micro fungal flora of the mud and water of Hanna Lake in Quetta district was investigated during 2015, using Baiting techniques. Apart from Mycotypha sp, the flora of Hanna Lake was essentially same and similar to those recorded by other authors for temperate lakes and river. Fusarium solani was the only species isolated consistently from mud and water through out the year and it is a true aquatic fungus. Other species showed a distinct seasonal pattern. Many of these included common phylloplane fungi such as Alternaria sp and Botrytis cinerea. The changes occurred in the fungal flora on leaves of Eucalyptus sp after immersion in water was studied and it was shown that phylloplane population declined quite rapidly. There was evidence that the decaying leaves were colonized by Fusarium solani and Pythium proliferum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular, Phenotypic Characterization, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Preterm Neonates at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factor of these Cases

Rasha A. Alm El- Din, Mostafa Awni, Heba El- Mahdi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27321

Aim of the Work: The aim of work is to study the prevalence of different staphylococcal species in preterm neonates with septicemia at neonatal intensive care unit over a period of one year and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile. 

Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 80 neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit in Tanta University hospitals. Blood culture was done and staphylococci were isolated and identified by conventional culture methods which were confirmed by biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolated strains was done by disc diffusion method. Molecular characterization of MRSA (methicillin resistant Staph. aureus) strains was done by Polymerase chain reaction.

Results:  Out of 80 cases of preterm infants with septicemia staphylococci were isolated from 12 cases (15%), 20 (25%) cases showed no growth of microorganisms, organisms other than staphylococci were isolated from 48 cases (60%). Of 12strains of staphylococci; 5 strains (5.25%) were identified as coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), 8 isolates (8.75%) were identified as Staphylococcus aureus which were divided as 3 strains MRSA (3.75%), and 4 stains (5%) MSSA (Methicillin sensitive Staph. aureus). As regard antimicrobial susceptibility profile; 60 % of MRSA strains were sensitive to meropenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin, 33.3% only were sensitive to cefotaxime, vancomycin and cefepime. whereas MSSA recorded highest sensitivity to oxacillin and vancomycin (100%) while the least sensitivity was to cefepime (25%). CoNS (coagulase negative staphylococci) strains showed highest sensitivity to gentamycin (80%) and the lowest sensitivity was to vancomycin and cefepime.

Conclusion:  Neonatal sepsis caused by staphylococci represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in NICU (Neonatal Intensive care unit). Each staphylococcus species had a definite Antimicrobial susceptibility profile which must be taken in consideration before decision of the plan of antimicrobial therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Epidemiology of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Circulated in Bangladesh from 2011–2014

M. Giasuddin, M. Showkat Mahmud, S. M. S. Alam, M. A. Samad, M. R. Islam, M. D. Ahasan, M. H. Rahman, M. R. Karim, M. R. Islam, P. Acharjee, M. A. .

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/28040

Background: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the highly contagious and economically devastating diseases of cloven-hoofed animals in Bangladesh. The present study was undertaken to investigate the molecular epidemiology of circulating FMD virus (FMDV) in Bangladesh during the period of 2011 to 2014.

Methodology: A total of 134 samples from clinically FMD infected cattle were collected from 15 different outbreak areas of Bangladesh. All samples were subjected to RNA extraction and RT-PCR for detection and serotyping of FMDV in Bangladesh.

Results: Out of 134 samples, 73% (98) samples were positive for FMDV. Three different serotypes (O, A, and Asia 1) of FMDV were found to be present in Bangladesh. Among the positive FMDV, serotype O and Asia 1 accounts for about 31% followed by A (7%) have been detected. Phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated that all BLRI/FMDV serotype O isolates were closely related to PanAsia strains, including those that originated from Bangladesh, Bhutan and India for the period of 2012–2014. Results of the sequencing of VP1 gene of FMDV serotype O revealed that there was slight divergence among BLRI isolated strains. BLRI/127 isolates of FMDV serotype A showed close resemblances with the isolates originated from India during 2000 to 2006. While BLRI/ FMDV serotype Asia 1 isolates were most closely related to other FMDV isolates collected in Bangladesh during 2013.

Conclusions: Assessment of genetic variation of FMD viruses in the field is useful for estimating the origin of outbreaks and provides valuable information applicable to control measures such as regulating animal movement and selecting appropriate vaccine strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae among Different Hospitals in Saudi Arabia

Ayman Khalid Johargy, Adil Jamal, Aiman Mohammed Mumenah

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/27866

Objective: Present Study was directed to examine the pervasiveness, antibiotics resistance and susceptibility array in Streptococcus pneumoniae gram positive and gram negative isolated strains.

Methodology: In current study, 6549 suspected samples were proceeded to confirm pneumonia positive cases obtained from various hospitals. Gram positive and gram negative strains were isolated and characterized by conventional biochemical techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using the disk diffusion test according to the Clinical and Standard Laboratory Institute guidelines (CLSI). Further, streptococcus based isolates were investigated using MacConkey agar.   

Results: A total number of 6549 suspected clinically samples were collected and 3716 (56.7%) pneumonia cases were confirmed to be positive. More than half of the confirmed cases fall in the age of 20-65 years and male proportion was found to be 64%. Interestingly, 98.2% of the cases were hospital acquired pneumoniae (HAP). P. aeruginosa most widely recognized isolate both hospital and community acquired (CA) etiological agent contributed 18.4% and 32.2% proportion respectively.

Conclusion: Clinicians ought to know that average observational pneumonia treatment administrations may not function admirably because of the diverse microbes. This requires sputum examining before beginning treatment for recognizable proof and affectability testing subsequent to a solitary measurement of antimicrobial treatment preceding pneumonia finding might impede the discovery of the causative specialists.