Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Children under 5 Years with Diarrhoea in Yola

Umar Abdullahi, Abana Abubakar Umar, Jaafaru M. Inuwa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/39741

Diarrhoeal diseases constitute one of the most important causes of illness and death all over the world. In Nigeria, the epidemiology of diarrhoeagenic bacteria and the virulence of the various E. coli pathotypes have not been well studied. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from children less than 5 years with diarrhoea in Yola metropolis in Adamawa State. A total of 200 stool samples were collected from children attending Health Facilities in Yola from May – December 2014. The samples collected comprised of 150 from patients with diarrhoea and 50 from patients without diarrhoea as control subjects. The samples were screened and examined for the prevalence of some organisms that could cause diarrhoea. The study shows that the prevalence of diarrhoea caused by bacteria is 21% and implicated E. coli with the highest prevalence of 10.5% followed by Salmonella species 5%, Shigella species4%, and Vibrio cholera 1.5%.  Most of these pathogens were isolated in female 11% as compared to males 10%, but the difference was not statistically significant. The isolated E. coli were found to be resistant to nitrofurantoin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, augmentin, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin. E. coli strains were characterised by serotyping and genotyping to detect virulence genes (eaeA and bfpA). Only one of the isolates tested positive for eae A gene. These research findings show that, though there are a number of causative bacterial agents of diarrhoeal diseases. E. coli remains one of the primary cause’s. Salmonella and Shigella were found important bacterial pathogens among paediatric patient in the selected health facilities in Yola. Improving the sanitary awareness through primary health education, careful surveillance, monitoring incidence and spread of diarrhoeal diseases, may help to reduce the disease burden in children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production Characteristics and Molecular Properties of Protease of Pediococcus acidilactici Isolated from Beef under Cold Storage

Fadahunsi Ilesanmi Festus, Duyilemi Olubunmi Pauline, Onilude Abiodun Anthony

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/32506

Aim: To investigate the production characteristics and molecular properties of protease from Pediococcus acidilactici under cold storage temperature.

Study Design: Identification and re-identification of Pediococcus acidilactis and determination of optimal conditions for protease production and molecular properties.

Place and Duration of Study:  All the work was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Nigeria between March 2014- January, 2015.

Methodology: Identification of the organism was done using API kit. Determination of inoculums concentration was carried using the Neubaeur chamber. pH, incubation period, substrate concentration, influence of ions, were determined by varying this parameters using standard methods to optimise values. Purification of the enzyme was obtained by gel chromatography using sephadex beads G-100, G-50 and finally by the use of sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). 

Results: The highest protease activity of 49.46 units ml-1 was recorded at pH 5.5, temperature of 20ºC, incubation period of 96 h, inoculum size of 0.1 ml (1.70 x 104) with 1% casein substrate concentration in the presence of 0.1 M manganese ion and 0.1M of Ammonium ions concentration. Separation of protease enzyme on SDS-PAGE showed that the molecular weights of the major peaks were found to be within the range of 45-55 kDa.

Applications: This study revealed that bacteria (Pediococcus acidilactici) could be induced for protease production and their applications in industrial spheres were confirmed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Potential of Lime Fruit (Citrus aurantitolia) Bark Extract on Mycelial Growth of Colletotrichum falcatum, Causal Organism of Sugercane Red Rot Disease

Okwelle, A. Austin, George, T. Stephen

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/31539

Biocontrol of plant pathogens involves the use and manipulation of living organisms or bioorganic compounds to reduce inoculum density and to maintain the pathogen population below the disease threshold level. This study investigated the inhibitory potential of lime fruit (Citrus aurantitolia)  bark extract in the  control of sugar  cane Red Rot fungus, Collectotrichum falcatum. Three different concentrations of the extract (i.e 20, 40 and 60%) was prepared and incorporated into sterilized potato dextrose   agar (PDA) plates. Each treatment concentration was prepared in four replicate. The test organism maintained in pure sub-culture was inoculated into the four replicate plates of each of the treatment concentration. The control treatment was also inoculated but the extract was not incorporated in to the medium. Activity of the extract   against C. falcatum was determined by the measurement (mm) of percentage inhibition of mycelial growth extension of the organism over a 7-day period. Two way analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Least Significant Differences (LSD) at 5% level of probability was used to analyse data obtained from measurement of the treatment replicates. The fungal mycelial growth inhibition was very significant at 40% concentration level than at 20 and 60%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Phytochemical Activity of Gliricidia sepium against Poultry Pathogens

Oladunmoye Muftau Kolawole, Ayantola Kehinde Joseph, Ogunleye Adefemi George

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/24104

Aim: To examine antibacterial and phytochemical activity of Gliricidia sepium in the treatment of poultry pathogens.

Place and Duration of Study: the work was carried out in the Department of Microbiology Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State, between January 2013 to July 2014.

Methodology: The methanol, ethanol, aqueous, acetone and petroleum ether soluble crude and fractions extract of Gliricidia sepium leaf were examined for antibacterial activities against selected poultry pathogens, Phytochemical and possible sources of antioxidant were examined. The antibacterial activity of the crude and fractions were carried out against four poultry bacteria isolates using the agar well diffusion and paper disk methods respectively. For all the tests, the significance was determined at the level of P< 0.05.

Results: In the antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion it was found that ethanol extract possessed highest zone of inhibition of 25.90±0.10 millimeters against S. typhi while the least zone of inhibition of 15.00±0.00 millimeters was recorded with petroleum ether against S. flexneri. The antioxidant DPPH test was performed with appreciable level of both ferric reducing antioxidant properties and free radical scavenging activities were of better expression in ethanolic extract than othersLikewise, ethanol extract has the highest concentration of phenol with a value of 7.57±0.00 mg/g and the highest flavonoid content was recorded in ethanol extract with a value of 3.94±0.02 mg/g.

Conclusion: The antibacterial activity showed by the extract of G. sepium was notable therefore the extract of this plant can be harnessed effectively in control of the growth of poultry pathogens.

Open Access Review Article

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in Humans and Antibiotic Resistance

Özgür Aslan, Yalçın Kanbay, Elif Işik

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/41483

In addition to other gram-negative bacteria identified as agents at high rates in hospital infections, P. aeruginosa is particularly important with its epidemiological and microbiological characteristics. In this study, infections developing due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa were discussed and increased antibiotic resistance in these bacterial infections and new therapeutic approaches were investigated.