Open Access Original Research Article

Multi Drug Resistance and Multi Antibiotics Resistance Index of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Hospitals in Port Harcourt Metropolis

Patience Nkiru Duruike, Aniekan Affia, Clement Ugochukwu Nyenke, Felix Eedee Konne

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i530385

Acinetobacter species are aerobic gram-negative bacilli that can cause healthcare-associated infections and can survive for prolonged periods in the environment. Also on the hands of healthcare workers, infection due to Acinetobacter species is a major challenge within the health care facilities and the community in general due to their high drug resistance. The study was aimed at detecting multi drug resistance and multi antibiotics resistance index (MARI) of acinetobacter baumannii isolated from hospitals in Port Harcourt meteropolis in Rivers State, Nigeria. The cross sectional study sampled randomly; as urine and wound swab samples were collected from patients. Acinetobacter spp was isolated using standard microbiological methods. Identification of A. baumannii isolates were done using Phynotypic methods such as culture on Lead Acinetobacter medium and conventional biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Kirby Bauer’s disk diffusion method under Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2013) guide Suspect Acinetobacter species were further identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequence typing methods. The results of confirmatory sequence typing of isolates showed that 9 of suspect Acinetobacter spp were A. baumannii. The results of this finding showed presence of A. baumannii species resistant to conventional antibiotics. All isolates demonstrated.MDR and XDR. MARI was high. (>0.2) indicating MDR and high risk. This study established high rate of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumanii.  There is need for improved sanitary working condition and proper patients’ management to reduce the spread of this health care associated infection as well as a Search for new therapeutic alternative and policies to control the use of antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of BMW Segregation Training Program on Hospital Infection Control in a South Indian Hospital

Rajeev Kishore Saxena, Archana Choure, Sanjay Bhatt, Umar Rashid Khan, Jalila Qayoom, Sachin Wankhede

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i530386

Introduction: Biomedical waste (BMW) generated is a matter of great concern as it consists of high levels of hazardous waste. The lack of segregation and disposal policy in India leads to use of such infectious waste in day-to-day life [1]. Lack of awareness about segregation of Biomedical Waste (BMW) at source is a major cause for Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI) and increased risk of contamination of hospital and external environment.

Materials & Methods: To address the problem, we decided to train interns and health care workers to increase their awareness about BMW segregation and thereby reduce HAI.

The program was run in 3 phases. In the 1st phase need assessment was done as to how important and effective this program would be in controlling HAI. The 2nd phase comprised of identifying the stake holders in the program who will play the key role in implementing the program effectively. The 3rd phase of Biomedical Segregation Program BMWSP focused on the outcomes as enumerated in the Kirkpatrick model [2], viz., participants’ reaction, learning, change in behavior  and results. Measuring the impact of the program on the learners at these four levels revealed the effectiveness of the program.

Results: To overcome the shortfalls in the Kirkpatrick model we used Logic model which took care of the instructional design. Logic model is better suitable for evaluating BMWSP as it considers inter-relation between constituents in a sequence and their effect on the process as well as product providing the necessary roadmap from the planned work (inputs and activities) to the intended results (outputs, outcomes and impact). It is a sequence of events connecting each other starting with Resources / Inputs, Activities, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. The model helped medical interns and dental students to understand the importance for BMWSP and also made a significant difference in its implementation.

Conclusion: The program helped in making the health care staff more aware about BMWSP. It also increased their knowledge, and helped in implementation of the program. This will significantly reduce HAI and overall benefit the society.

Open Access Original Research Article

Batch Mode Biomethane Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) with Cassava Peels and Cabbage Waste

C. B. Nwaneri, C. O. Akujobi, S. I. Okorondu, S. I. Umeh, C. C. Opurum

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i530387

This study aimed to investigate anaerobic co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) with cassava peels (CP) and cabbage waste (CW) for biomethane production. The anaerobic digestion (AD) in 10L capacity bioreactors loaded separately with three different ratios (3L/ 520g, 3L/ 600g and 3L/ 680g) of POME/CP, POME/CW and POME only (control) was operated under ambient temperature (25 - 36⁰C) and pH range of 6.5 - 8.5 for 45 days. Standard methods were adopted in the characterization of the bioreactor feeds and microbiological study. The biomethane content of the biogas was determined using Gas Chromatography (GC). The results showed the presence of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas sp, Bacillus sp Salmonella sp among others. Fungal isolates identified include Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Penicillum, and Geotrichum species. The mean cumulative biogas yield recorded in bioreactors charged with POME/ CP 520g, POME/ CP 600g, POME/ CP 680g and POME/CW 520g, POME/CW 600g, POME/CW 680g were 7.08, 5.18, 9.06, 9.13, 9.28 and 8.33 dm3, respectively, whereas POME alone (control) was 4.64 dm3. The best performance in biogas yield was exhibited by POME/CW 600g (9.28dm3), and the highest percentage biomethane content (68.80%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in biogas yield in all the treatments compared to control (POME alone) except in POME/CP 3L: 520g and POME/CP 3L: 600g. The results have shown that biogas production and biomethane content could be efficiently improved via co-digestion process, depending on the substrates used as feedstock.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and In-vitro Antioxidant Activities of Some Selected Higher Fungi from Oyo State, South West of Nigeria

Francis Chukwumma Omeonu, Segun Gbolagade Jonathan, Adeola Temitope Salami, Sunday Ademola Laba, Victor Okechukwu Azuh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 32-41
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i530389

Higher-fungi (Hf) of the polypore mushrooms are considered to have unique secondary metabolites, making them reservoirs of therapeutically significant bioactive compounds. Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of the Hf were accessed in this study.

Four Hf, which were found in several wild locations in Oyo state, Nigeria, were collected. At the University of Ibadan Botany Department Laboratory, the species of the four Hf were determined. In-vitro antioxidant activity were assessed using the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) assays using methanol extracts of air-dried and powdered Hf. Results were presented as Mean SEM, graphs were created in Excel, one-way ANOVA was used for the analysis, and p ≤0.05 was regarded as significant.

These Hf were identified as Lycoperdon rimlatum (Lr) FFUI1, Trametes versicolor (Tv) FFUI2, Ganoderma lucidum (Gl) FFUI3, and Daedelia quarcina (Dq) FFUI4 and were recorded on the NCBI with accession numbers EU833664.1, JQ621899, JQ520179.1 and KP171209.1, respectively. All the Hf showed positive tests for the presence of saponin, tannin, alkaloid, terpenoid, carbohydrate,tannin and flavonoids. The Hf showed antioxidant activities, the highest DPPH inhibition was by Tv (94.48%), FRAP was by Gl (0.16 mg/g) and H2O2 inhibition was by Lr (70.90%). The antioxidant activities observed were due to the presence of useful phytochemicals making them therapeutically significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transcriptome Analysis of Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites during in vivo Contact-independent Mediated Host-parasite Interaction: Putative Pathways Related to PCD

David Guillermo Pérez Ishiwara, Mineko Shibayama, Kumiko Nakada-Tsukui, Ghulam Jeelani, María del Consuelo Gómez-García, Olivia Medel Flores, Tomoyoshi Nozaki

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 42-62
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i530390

Aim: In the present study, we exploited DNA microarray-based transcriptome analysis and showed overall changes in gene expression in vivo of amoebic trophozoites that interact with animal soluble factors using an intraperitoneal dialysis bag model to elucidate putative molecular pathways and genes involved in this interaction.

Study Design: We exploited DNA microarray-based transcriptome analysis.

Results: An analysis from a network including the interactions of up-regulated genes and their neighbors revealed the presence of 11 functionally related modules. Six of the modules obtained were related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functions, such as degradation, stress, proteasome-ubiquitination, phosphorylation, lipid metabolism, and protein sorting. Furthermore, major transcriptional changes displayed by the parasite at the beginning of interaction were attributed to the response to the host defense. These data are consistent with the notion that the concerted expression of genes necessary for survival such as increment in protein synthesis, cytoskeleton rearrangement, vesicular traffic and genes involved in cell death including calcium imbalance and the ER signals associated with protein degradation (ERAD) is an overall landscape during the in vivo interaction between the amoebic trophozoites and animal soluble factors, and suggest that the ER stress is one of the main pathways leading to programmed cell death in E. histolytica.

Conclusion: The present findings on the global transcriptional changes displayed by the parasite at the early stages of interaction with host environments in peritoneal implantation indicate that a substantial proportion of concerted changes in gene expression in amoebic trophozoites are attributable to the parasite’s response for cell death signals due to ER stress. A detailed knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanism might suggest the efficient elimination of this parasite by promoting their death pathways.