Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Effect of Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract on Pathogenic Fungi

M. Hassan, V. K. Fadayomi, I. G. Innocent, M. Suleiman

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 15-26
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i330375

The study aimed at undertaking preliminary phytochemical studies and antifungal activities of Lawsonia inermis leaf extracts against clinical Candida isolates from female patients attending Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital (DASH) Lafia, Nasarawa State. HVS (High Vaginal Swab) samples were collected from 185 subjects and transported to the laboratory for analysis. Microbial culture and isolations were done on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Blood agar, Potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Sabouraud dextrose broth. Identification of clinical isolates was done following standard guideline for Candida identification including microscopic, cultural and biochemical characteristics (sugar utilization and fermentation). Antifungal susceptibility tests of the plant extracts at different concentrations were carried out against Candida isolates. Distilled water and ketoconazole drug served as negative and positive control respectively. Zones of inhibitions, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the extracts were determined. Data were analysed on the Minitab 16.0 software for descriptive (mean with standard error) and inferential statistics and Chi Square at 95% confidence limit. In conclusion, L.inermis leaf has been shown to have antifungal properties since it contained quality phytochemicals in sufficient quantity that may be explored in the synthesis of drugs against some species of Candida. This finding is crucial in the management and control of candidiasis in the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

GC-MS Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of the Extract and Fractions of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis 168 Isolated from a River Bank in Nigeria

Olasinbo Olumuyiwa Balogun, Sylvanus Chukwudi Ugoh, Peters Olawale Oladosu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i230374

The menace of drug resistant pathogens is increasing and their level of evading conventional antimicrobials is rising. It is therefore important to discover new antimicrobials to counter the current challenges. Our preliminary investigation identified Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis 168 isolated from soil sample sourced from a river bank in Abuja, Nigeria, as the most potent antibiotic-producing bacteria among the other identified producers. The current study screened for the antimicrobial activity of the extract and fractions of the isolate by broth microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and the ratio of the MBC/MIC were determined. All the tested pathogens were susceptible to the ethyl-acetate extract (MIC between 28.70 mg/ml and 57.40 mg/ml). The extract displayed bactericidal activity against all tested pathogens (MBC/MIC between 1.00 and 2.00) while Proteus mirabilis was least susceptible. The extract was purified by vacuum liquid chromatography and the fractions challenged with pathogenic strains.  The fraction E was the most potent (MIC between 0.09 mg/ml and 0.75 mg/ml) and also bactericidal against all the test microbes (MBC/MIC between 2.00 and 2.11).  GC-MS analysis of the purified sub fraction obtained from fraction E identified 13 compounds with different Retention time and peak areas.  Among these were three major compounds which include: (i) bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ii) 1,4-epoxynaphthalene-1(2H)-methanol, 4,5,7-tris(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3,4-dihydro- (iii) D:B-Friedo-B':A'-neogammacer-5-en-3-ol, (3.beta.)-.  Our findings suggest that Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis 168 isolated locally could serve as a valuable source of lead compounds for pharmaceutical and biotechnological purposes.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Bacterial Load and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility in an Artisanal Refining Environment

O. A. Ollor, V. N. Agi, C. A. Azike, G. T. Orji

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 27-37
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i330376

Background: Bacteria present in the atmosphere often show predicable patterns across space and time. and these patterns and properties of the bacteria can be affected by presence of soot which is generated by artisanal refining and excessive burning of fossil fuel. These bacteria are being inhaled by humans on daily basis and this can have detrimental effects on human health and the environment.

Aim: This work was carried out to investigate the microbial load and antimicrobial susceptibility of an environment associated with artisanal refining activities.

Methodology: The eight samples were taken randomly from four different locations in a high artisanal refining state Rivers State (Ojoto Roundabout, Nembe Waterside, Rumuokalagbor Village, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH), Rivers State University Microbiology laboratory and Mile 1 Park) all in Port Harcourt, Rivers State and compared to two locations from another state Kano state (No. 33 Lamido Crescent and God is Good Motors Park, Kano State) without artisanal refining activities all in Nigeria and tested for viable bacteria load. The six test and two control samples were collected on prepared dry nutrient agar exposed to free air for a period of five (5) minutes and were covered properly and transferred to the laboratory and incubated at 37OC for 24 hours. The isolates were morphologically and biochemically determined and identified.

Results: The Total Heterotrophic count indicates that samples from Rumuokalagbor village have a high number of bacteria growth colonies with a colony forming unit of 1.43 x 106 while sample from Rivers State University Teaching Hospital had lesser colony forming unit of 7.5 x 105,. However, the Total Heterotrophic Bacteria Count from our control is seen to be very low with 3.2 x 105 and 2.8 x 105 respectively. Microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus species and Staphylococcus species. were identified from the various locations. Few isolates were gotten from the entire laboratory with a total of 22 isolates, 18 Bacillus species (77), 3 Staphylococcus species (18%) and 1 Staphylococcus aureus (5%). The antimicrobial sensitivity results revealed Ciprofloxacin (77%) having higher sensitivity followed by Levofloxacin (66.6%). Norfloxacin (0%), Rifampicin (0%) and Ampiclox (0%) were seen to be highly resistant to the bacteria isolated.

Conclusion: This work was able to identify Bacillus species,Staphylococcus species and Staphylococcus aerues. as bacteria associated with artisanal refining at the different sampled sites. Strict implementation on stopping artisanal refining in our communities is recommended to reduce the public health risk posed by soot inhalation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human and Environmental Reservoirs of Intestinal Parasites in the City of Yaoundé, Cameroon: An Update in the Context of COVID-19 Pandemic

Laurelle Djieukap Njieyap, Bienvenu Balifeli, Narcisse Mvondo, Joelle Tanguep Siakam, Chi Tchampo Fru, Albert Bayibeki Ngano, Nadege Amougou Okoa, Patrick Akono-Ntonga, Josiane Désirée Etang, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Cyrille Ndo, Serge Hubert Zebaze Togouet, Flobert Njiokou, Nicolas Félicien Dologuele, Herman Parfait Awono-Ambene

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 38-51
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i330377

Aims: Intestinal parasitic infections are persistent in Africa, and we questioned here whether prevention measures imposed by the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 could alleviate this threat in lowlands of the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon.  

Study Design: We monitored the trend of intestinal parasites in human and environmental samples from the seven subdivisions of the city of Yaounde, before (November-December 2019) and during (July-August 2020, November-December 2020) the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methodology: Parasitological analysis were performed to check for the presence of helminths and protozoans in stools from inhabitants as well as in water, soil and fresh vegetables, using standard Kato Katz and Formol Ether methods.The minimum effective sample size considered for the estimation of parasite richness, parasite infection and contamination indexeswas 30 for human and 30 for environmental samples (i.e. soils, water and vegetables) per location.

Results: Of the 19 parasite species identified in human and the environments, twelve were helminths and seven protozoans. The overall parasite species richness reached 16 in 2019 (12 helminths and 4 protozoans) and 19 in 2020 (12 helminths and 7 protozoans), with about 62.5-68.4% of species shared by human and environments. The parasite frequencies in human (21.03%) and water/soils (32.3%) in 2019 did not differ statistically with those of 2020 (14.6-20.3% and 10.8-35.4%, respectively). The contamination rate of vegetables (i.e. carrots, lettuce, basil, celery, etc.) has increased from 2019 (6.1-9.1%) to 2020 (9.1-24.2%), and was frequently due to roundworms, hookworms, Entamoeba and Cryptosporidium cysts. The findings suggest persistent risk associated with intestinal parasite irrespective to measures imposed by COVID-19 in study locations.

Conclusion: The current control approaches may therefore integrateecological epidemiology of the intestinal parasite infections as complementary strategy in African cities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella spp to Ethanoic Extract of Lawsonia inermis

Paul Amos Bassi, Manpreet Kaur, Manavjot Kaur, Ramyil M. S. Crown

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 52-63
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i330379

Background: The acceptance of traditional medicine as an alternative form of healthcare and the development of microbial resistance to the available antibiotics has led researchers to investigate the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts.

Aim: This was to evaluate antibacterial activity and potential effect of Lawsonia inermis leaves against three tests organisms namely: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Shigella.

Methodology: Ethanoic extracts of Lawsonia inermis was obtained. The extracts were boiled, macerated, soaked and the implementation of the extracts to determine the antimicrobial activities on culture was performed by diffusion method. Three antibiotics (Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin and Cefataxime) were used as control for the test organisms respectively.

Results: The inhibition of each test organism was achieved in one or two extracts. Escherichia coli had the highest (7.25mm) zone of inhibition from soaked extract with lowest (5.00mm) zone of inhibition from boiled extract, Salmonella typhi had the highest (11.63mm) zone of inhibition from boiled extract with lowest (8.25mm) zone of inhibition from macerated extract, and Shigella had the highest zone of inhibition 19.50mm from soaked extract, and had the lowest zone of inhibition 12.63mm from boiled extract. Furthermore, the soaked ethanoic extract had a zone of inhibition ranging from 7.25mm- 19.50mm. Also, the ethanoic extract boiled had zones of inhibition ranging from 5.00mm – 12.63mm, and the ethanoic extract macerated had a zone of inhibition range of 6.63mm- 17.75mm. The zones of inhibition produced by the controls are; gentamicin produced zones of inhibition ranging from 25.00mm – 26.00mm, ciprofloxacin produced zones of inhibition ranging from 20.00mm – 22.00mm, and cefataxime produced zones of inhibition ranging from 18.00mm – 21.00mm. The Statistical analysis was applied to the result using the one-way ANOVA test to compare the differences in the means.

Conclusion: The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the effects of the ethanoic extracts of Lawsonia inermis on the tests organisms S. typhi, E. coli and Shigella and the controls. (p<0.05, F Cal = 0.103, F Tab = 4.257).