Open Access Minireview Article

Plastic Degrading Microbes: A Review

B. Saritha, Sanakausar A. Sindgi, O. K. Remadevi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i630324

Plastic accumulation is the vital cause of environmental pollution and is an ever-increasing ecological threat. The sustainable use of synthetic polymers is one of the major challenges of the twenty- first century. The conventional techniques employed to degrade plastic in the environment are inadequate as it releases harmful by-products. One of the solutions for reducing the plastic pollution is biodegradation of plastic by using microorganisms. In the present review, we have analysed the potential of plastic degrading microbes reported by different investigators.

Open Access Original Research Article

Resistance Profile and Molecular Characterization of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Strains Responsible for the 2016 to 2018 Epidemic in Republic of Benin (West Africa)

Eliane Assiba Olorun-Kosun Akpo, Tamegnon Victorien Dougnon, Rosalie Sacheli, Alidehou Jerrold Agbankpe, Olivia Mariette Yégbandé Houngbégnon, Pierrette Melin, Honoré Sourou Bankole

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i630322

Aims: This study aims to characterize of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains for improved cholera surveillance in Benin.

Methodology: 304 diarrheal stool samples were collected from people with watery diarrhea of unknown etiology and vomiting during epidemics from 2016 to 2018 in Benin. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains were isolated and then biochemical tests, serogrouping and serotyping were performed. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using the disc diffusion method and E-tests. Multiplex and real-time PCR were used to identify and detect virulence genes (CtxA, OmpW and TcpA).

Results: The results showed a 21.71% prevalence of toxigenic Vibrio cholera in Benin. All strains were Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Inaba (100%) and showed a high sensitivity to doxycycline (96.97 %), chloramphenicol (95.45 %) and ciprofloxacin (90.91 %). However, antibiotic resistance was observed, especially for erythromycin (74.24 %), Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (71.21 %) and ampicillin (43.94 %). The CtxA and TcpA virulence genes were respectively detected in 100% and 96.97% of the toxigenic strains of V. cholerae isolated. While the OmpW gene was identified on all the toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated.

Conclusion: Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from patients suspected of cholera were highly virulent and resistant to antimicrobials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Quality of Local Streams and Antibacterial Effect of Ocimum gratissimum and Psidium guajava

Etim Lawrence Bassey, Ekong Mercy Okon

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i630323

Background: Streams are known sources of drinking water for most communities in the rural areas. It importance to human and other forms of life cannot be overemphasize, hence the need to evaluate it portability

Methodology: Microbiological quality of different streams in Inua Akpa of Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State was determined using standard bacteriological technique. The two (Psidium guajava and Ocimum gratissimum) plant materials were extracted using 70% ethanol and distilled water. Susceptibility testing was carried out using agar diffusion methods. SPSS version 20 was used for descriptive statistics, student Unpaired T-test compared the means of bacterial isolates and their distribution in different streams.

Results: E. coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella and Enterococcus Spp were isolated with percentage occurrence based on streams as: 43.0, 27.0, and 30.0%, 71.0, 27.0, 00, 83.0, 00, 18.0 and 63.0%, 38.0, 00 in Ndom Nyam, Usung Esuk and Usung Odot streams respectively. Klebsiella was the most frequent isolate (83.0%) followed by Salmonella Spp in Ndom Nyam.  Salmonella and Enterococcus spp were absent in Usung Odot while Klebsiella Spp was undetected in Usung Esuk. E.coli was isolated in all the experimented streams with total occurrence of 93.0%. There was a significant difference at P = 0.005 in the occurrence of E. coli in all the streams compared to other isolates.

 The isolated organisms were susceptible to P. guajava at all concentrations (50, 30, 20, 10, 5mg/mL) with highest inhibition of (24mm) observed at 50mg/mL against Klebsiella Spp. Ocimum gratissimum was effective against E.coli at all concentrations, Enterococcus was only inhibited at 50 and 30mg/mL, Klebsiella showed resistant at the lowest concentration (5mg/mL) while Salmonella resisted the extract at all concentrations. The aqueous extract of both plants showed no antimicrobial activity against any isolated organisms as well as negative controls.

Conclusion: This study suggest a regular monitoring of local streams to stop human activities that encourages the introduction of microorganisms into sources of drinking water. The expressed inhibitory zones of diameter by these two plants justify their used as alternative treatment for water related illnesses in rural communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimisation of Lactic Acid Fermentation from Cassava Peel by Lactobacillus casei (ATCC334)

Rahmat Folashade Zakariyah, Micheal Oluwaseyi Ojo, Kamoldeen Abiodun Ajijolakewu, Kudirat Bolanle Saliu, Risikat Nike Ahmed, Tariq Oluwakunmi Agbabiaka, Alhassan Sani

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 29-42
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i630325

The demand for lactic acid is steadily increasing due to the desire of its bioproduction over chemical synthesis. The associated cost, however, is a significant hurdle. This study reports lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 from cassava peel. It investigates the effect of unhydrolysed cassava peels, acidic, alkali hydrolysates; fermenting pH; substrate concentration; nitrogen source concentration; duration; and inoculum size. An attempt at a cheaper purification and recovery protocol relative to those currently in use was similarly performed. Acidic hydrolysate yielded 10.53%, unhydrolysed substrate gave 4.80% with alkali hydrolysate yielding 4.75%. The highest LA yield was obtained at pH 6.0, 2.0% v/v inoculum size, 25% w/v substrate concentration, 5% nitrogen source concentration. A post-optimisation combination yielded 18.3% LA suggesting that one-factor-at-a-time may be unsuitable for optimisation studies involving cassava peel and L. casei ATCC334. FTIR spectra of product suggests effective partial purification. Hence, an improvement in the optimization strategy for production is recommended for subsequent study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Quality of Frozen Chicken Parts from three Import Countries into the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana

Denis Dekugmen Yar, William Kwajo Jimah Kwenin, Winfred Kwame Zanu, Gadafi Iddrisu Balali, Enos Kwame Adepa, Gyapong Francis

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 43-53
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i630326

There is an upsurge in the consumption of chicken meat leading to a high influx of imported frozen chicken parts into the Ghanaian markets with little information on their microbial qualities. This study examined the microbial quality of imported frozen chicken parts from three major import countries (USA, the Netherlands and Brazil) into the Kumasi Metropolis. A total of 45 chicken meat parts of 15 thighs, wings and backs from wholesale cold stores market in the Kumasi Metropolis were randomly sampled for laboratory examinations. A ten-fold serial dilution was performed on each homogenized chicken parts to determine microbiological quality using Plate Count Agar [1], MacConkey Agar (MCA), Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) and Desoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA) for the total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC), Staphylococcus and Salmonella spp counts respectively incubated at 37oC for 48 hours. Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) was used for fungal counts. We identified bacterial and fungal isolates using appropriate laboratory and biochemical tests. Descriptive data analysis was carried using SPSS-IBM version 16. Mean TVCs of 5.93, 5.98 and 6.14 log10cfu/g were recorded for frozen chicken meats from the USA, the Netherlands and Brazil respectively. Means TCCs of 6.14, 5.93 and 5.98 log10cfu/g were obtained for chicken meats from Brazil, USA and the Netherlands respectively. Staphylococcus spp. (G+) (35.4%), E. coli (G-) (26.2%), Salmonella spp. (G-) (24.6%), and Klebsiella spp. (G-) (13.8%) were isolated with Aspergillus spp (33.3%), Rhizopus spp (27.3%), Penicillin spp (24.2%), and Cladosporium spp (15.2%). Chicken thighs, backs and wings recorded 46.2%, 29.2% and 24.6% bacterial contaminants in this order. Bacterial isolates of 49.2%, 28.8% and 22.0% were recorded in frozen chicken meat products from Brazil, the Netherlands USA respectively. The results suggest that imported frozen chicken meats into the Ghanaian market have moderate quality with potential pathogens such as E. coli and Salmonella spp.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mobile Phones of Healthcare Workers are Possible Source of Nosocomial Infections: Evidence from Asante-Mampong Municipal Government Hospital, Ghana

Denis Dekugmen Yar, Gyapong Francis, Kusi Roland, Opoku-Agyei Collins, Gadafi Iddrisu Balali, Richard Amankwah Kuffour, Emmanuel Effah-Yeboah

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 54-61
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i630327

Background: The users of mobile phones often contaminate them with several microflorae including viruses, fungi, and bacteria via unhygienic conditions and habits making phones a breeding ground and a tool for the transmission of infections. This study examined microbial contamination of mobile phones of health care workers (HCWs) and the risk of nosocomial infections at the Mampong Municipal Government Hospital (MMGH), Ghana.

Methods: We employed a cross-sectional study design to characterize bacterial microflora on mobile phones of HCWs at the MMGH. A random sample of thirty-five [1] mobile phones of HCWs was swabbed for microbiological analysis from the Dental, Children, Male, Theatre and Laboratory departments. A 0.1 ml sterile buffered peptone water was used to make a uniform suspension of each sample and streaked on blood agar and MacConkey agar and incubated at 37℃ for 48 hours. Bacteria were isolated and identified using suitable laboratory and biochemical methods. Analysis of data was done using SPSS-IBM version 16.

Results: All cell phones were contaminated with one or more species of bacteria. Cell phones from Male, Dental and Laboratory departments had 85.7%, 71.4% and 57.1% prevalence of bacterial contamination respectively while Children’s and Theatre departments each recorded 28.6%. Bacterial contaminants identified were Staphylococcus epidermidis (G+) (37%), Staphylococcus aureus (G+) (26%), E. coli (G-) (20%), Bacillus spp. (G+) (11%) and Klebsiella spp. (G-) (6%.).  Apart from the Children’s Ward, E. coli was isolated at all study sites and the most prevalent (42.9%) at the Dental Unit. Klebsiella spp (G-) (28.6%) was isolated only at the Children’s ward.

Conclusion: Mobile phones of HCWs harboured possible pathogens that could cause nosocomial infections among patients. Therefore, strict handwashing practices should be adhered to by HCWs before and after phone use before contact with the patient to reduce the risk of nosocomial infections. This has become even more relevant in the wake of Covid-19 pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative Bacteria in Urban Flies, and the Increased Risk Posed by Open-air Markets in Mexico City

Carlos F. Amábile-Cuevas, Daniel Romero-Romero

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 62-70
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i630328

Aims: Flies are known to spread antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), especially from farms to cities; but they may also play a role in the intra-urban dispersion of ARB, in conjunction with poor sanitary conditions. Here, we characterized gram-negative ARB isolated from urban flies (Lucilia and Sarcophaga spp.), and the co-relation with the periodic installation of two open-air markets in Mexico City.

Methodology: Forty-two flies were individually captured, and 116 gram-negatives (68 of them Escherichia coli) were isolated from them. Resistance prevalence, and the presence of class 1 integrons was assessed.

Results: The isolates were resistant to an average of 2.26 antibiotics (2.6 for E. coli), and 33% of E. coli isolates carried the intI1 gene. Thirteen percent of E. coli isolates produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), all of them CTX-M, alone or, mostly, along TEM enzymes. Comparing data from market-free days vs. days when open-air markets were installed, the average number of resistance phenotypes per E. coli isolate went from 2.14 to 3.09; the number of resistance phenotypes per fly from 4.62 to 8.88; the average number of resistances per isolate per fly from 1.25 to 2.43; and the ESBL-producing carriage rate per fly from 0.08 to 0.38, respectively (P <.05). Other resistance parameters, were consistently higher among flies captured on market days, but differences were not significant.

Conclusion: Urban flies in Mexico City carry a high number of gram-negative ARB; the presence of open-air markets significantly increase the risk of fly-mediated ARB spreading to the neighboring areas.