Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Profile and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern at the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital: A Retrospective Study

Daniele Sandra Yopa, Hortense Gonsu Kamga, Emmanuel Nnanga Nga, Olive Nathalie Kouamen Njikeu, Claude Stephan Ohandza, Georges Nguefack-Tsague

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i730329

Aims: Over the decades, antibiotic resistance has become a cross-border public health problem. This calls for the profiling of microorganisms, particularly bacteria implicated in antibiotic resistance, in order to improve clinical practice and reduce the incidence of therapeutic failure in the treatment of infectious diseases.

Study Design: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was made at the bacteriology laboratory at the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon during the period between January 2016 and June 2021.

Methodology: All bacterial strains from the following biological fluids were included: blood, stool, urine, suppurations, probe tip and catheter tip. The antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was collected from the registers of the said laboratory. The data were encoded in Censuses and Survey Procession Software (CSPro) version 7.3 and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 25. Graphs and figures were made using Excel 2016 spreadsheet software.

Results: A total of 1071 bacteria were enrolled in 955 patients. The age group most represented was 0-5 years (34.6%). Most of the isolates came from a blood sample. Among the isolates, Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (18.5%), Escherichia coli (17.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (14%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.2%) were the most common. A total of 1071 bacteria were enrolled in 955 patients. The age group most represented was 0-5 years (34.6%). Most of the isolates came from a blood sample. Among the isolates, Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (18.5%), Escherichia coli (17.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (14%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.2%) were the most represented. Between 2016 and 2020, almost remarkable resistance was observed to the class of penicillins (78% to 83%), cephalosporins (44% to 61%) and quinolones (43% to 100%) for Escherichia coli. For Staphylococcus aureus, resistance changes range from 68% to 77% for the penicillin class. Klebsiella pneumoniae showed an evolution ranging from 11% to 19% for aminosides.

Conclusion: Although not all isolates showed a change in the level of resistance to all antibiotics that are frequently used in our study population, Nevertheless, it is important for national public health actors to establish active surveillance of antibiotic and even antimicrobial resistance and to implement a guide to the proper use of antibiotics for health professionals, and the community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Diversity of Gastrointestinal Tract from Individuals in Hydrocarbon Impacted Ogoni Communities in Rivers States, Nigeria

Caroline Barituka Ganabel, Confidence Kinikanwo Wachukwu, Samuel Douglas Abbey, Easter Godwin Nwokah

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 16-27
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i730330

Background: The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is popularly known for its huge deposit of crude oil which during explorative activities has led to the pollution of soil and water bodies of nearby coastal regions such as Ogoni.

Aim: This study aimed to assess the bacterial diversity of the GIT of induvial living in hydrocarbon-impacted Ogoni communities.

Methods: Eighty (80) stool samples were collected as case subjects (people living in hydrocarbon-impacted Ogoni communities). Twenty (20) subjects were collected as control samples (people living in Ikenga Ogidi in Idemili North LGAs of Anambra State Nigeria which is a non-hydrocarbon- impacted region). These samples were cultured and analyzed for genomic studies using standard procedures, antimicrobial profiling was done using standard antibiotic disc, the resistant and virulent genes were also assessed using the thermal cycler PCR techniques.

Results: The phylogenic analyses of the 16S rRNA for case and control subjects review the isolates within the Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia, Morganella, Proteus, and Lysinibacibacillus mecroides, Commamonas thiooxydans, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter asburiae respectively. Antibiotic resistance profiling reviewed resistance to the following antibiotic AZN (43%), CIP (11%), EPT (20%), CT (47%), IPM (11%), CN (40%), NOR (11%), CTX (94%), and AZN (0%), CIP (40%), EPT (20%), CT (80%), IPM10%, CN20%, NOR (70%,) CTX (70%) for case and control subjects respectively. The prevalence of resistance genes were CTX (56%), SHV (28%), TEM (28%) for case subjects. The virulence genes, Stx1 had (16%), Adhesin (40%), Stx (10%) and Adhesin (20%) for case and control respectively. No resistance genes were found in the control while more virulence genes were found in the case than the control subjects.

Conclusion: These finding revealed that individual living in hydrocarbon impacted Ogoni communities harbor resistance genes that could pose great risk to their health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Selenomonas Noxia and Akkermansia Muciniphila from the Oral Cavity of Pediatric Patients

Tommy Le, Eunice Chun, Ivan Lopez, Karl Kingsley, Linh Nguyen

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 28-33
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i730331

Introduction: The human digestive tract is composed of an immense variety of microorganisms, which have been linked to many health problems such as obesity. There are many studies that demonstrate the association of cariogenic pathogens in dental patients and overall health. Selenomonas noxia, a gram negative anaerobe that is unable to metabolize sucrose and Akkermansia muciniphila, a gram negative anaerobe known to metabolize fats are two examples of pathogens that play a role in overall health. 

Objectives: Few studies have investigated both Selenomonas noxia (SN) and Akkermansia muciniphila (AM) with the same patient samples. The objective of this study was to analyze and evaluate the prevalence of both these organisms in a dental school-based setting. 

Methods: Saliva was collected from pediatric patients using an IRB-approved protocol. DNA was isolated for PCR screening and quality tested using the nanodrop. Gel electrophoresis was used for visualization. Forty seven (n=47) patients ranging from five to fifteen years of age (average 10.3) were screened. Nearly two-thirds of patients were male (64.6%) with the vast majority identified as Hispanic (72.9%) or other minority (25.0%) 

Results: DNA was successfully isolated with an overall average DNA concentration of 1.43 ug/uL and overall purity (A260:A80 ratio) of 1.88. Of the forty seven patients, four patients were positive for SN. There was no presence of AM in the samples.

Conclusions: Research regarding AM and SN may suggest they inhabit different niches in the microbial community. The preliminary data of this pilot study suggests that SN could be found in pediatric patients while AM is not likely prevalent. However, due to the small patient sample size and large differences observed from these samples further research and analysis would need to be conducted to validate the findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Bacterial Metagenomics of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.) I. M. Johnston and Other Leafy Vegetables

Nkechi Gloria Ogbuji, Eromosele Anthony Ataga

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 34-49
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i730333

Aims: Vegetables provide a favourable habitat for diverse populations of microorganisms. Some vegetables, especially the ones used in salads are ready-to-eat food products and some phyllosphere bacteria might contribute to the prolonged presence of human food-borne pathogens in these vegetables.

Methodology: Phyllosphere bacteria associated with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius were evaluated using a culture-independent approach, Illumina MiSeq platform of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and then compared with publicly available data obtained from Spinacia oleracea (spinach) and Lactuca sativa (lettuce) on GenBank.

Results: The results from this study showed that the three vegetables harbor diverse bacterial organisms. Eighty-three (83) Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) assigned to five phyla were obtained from C. aconitifolius phyllosphere. The most predominant phyla across studied vegetables were: Proteobacteria (74.79%), Actinobacteria (8.69%) and Firmicutes (7.37%). Potential human pathogenic species such as Bacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas spp. were also present in lettuce and spinach. Bacteria with potential for antibiotic production, anti-microbial and antibiotic resistant genes belong to the families Bacillaceae, Streptomycetaceae, Pseudomonaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Enterococcaceae and Streptococcaceae. The most abundant taxa obtained from this study were Pseudomonas, Erwinia, Brachybacterium, Megasphaera, Janthinobacterium, Sphingomonas and Lactobacillus.

Conclusion: Our result successfully determined the relative abundance of potential human and plant pathogens in the leafy vegetables and also showed the bacterial community structure in the studied vegetables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterisation and Plasmid Profiling of Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria Isolates from Wetlands in Rivers State, Southern Nigeria

D. N. Ogbonna, P. M. Chibuike, J. O. Williams

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 50-59
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2021/v31i730334

Wetlands can intercept runoff from surfaces prior to reaching open water and remove pollutants through physical, chemical, and biological processes thereby protecting and preserving the environment.  Because of unsustainable oil exploration activities, most wetlands in Rivers State, Southern Nigeria have suffered severe petroleum-damaged ecosystems. This research was carried out to characterize and identify the hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria associated with crude oil polluted wetlands and to screen for the presence of plasmids that could confer resistance to antibiotics using both cultural and molecular methods. Soil samples were collected from three different wetlands across the state with hand auger at two depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm twice monthly for three months. The presence of microbial activity was determined by the enumeration and isolation of total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. Eight (8) most occuring hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates were isolated and identified culturally and phenotypically from the 54 wetland soil samples. These bacteria isolates were confirmed to be Bacillus flexus, Bacillus subtilis, Lysinibacillus macroides, Staphylococcus aureus, Chryseobacterium aquifrigidense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica molecularly via sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most common bacteria isolated were Bacillus species, followed by Pseudomonas at a dilution of 106.   Seven (7) out of the eight (8) isolates (except Salmoella enterica) showed the presence of the 25kb plasmids at various intensities.