Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus and Associated Risk Factors in the Adamaoua and Far North Regions of Cameroon

Mansour Mohamadou, Sarah Riwom Essama, Lilian Akwah, Aline Bamia, Elie Velhima Adamou, Marie Chantal Ngonde, Calixte Mbakop, Damdam Fadimatou Bello, Jacob Ndoumwe, Paul Djidere Yafowo, Rosine Njapndounke, Hortense Gonsu Kamga

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i1130278

Background: Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) have been recognized as an important public health problem worldwide. Resistant S. aureus strains emerged and its prevalence has been on the rise. Many risk factors were identified as comorbidities and impact seriously the health state of infected individual by resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We focus our study on two of these risk factors (HIV-infection and diabetes) which may constitute high potential health conditions for emergence of resistant S. aureus strains.   

Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted during 19 months in five laboratories in the northern Cameroon. Collection of clinical samples from nine different types of specimens and first identifications were conducted in the various sites of study. Selected strains were transported in Yaoundé using standard procedure. Identification and drug susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. Questionnaires were submitted to all the participants after an approved written and oral consent. HIV and Glycemia test were carried out on each patient in case their status was not known. During the study, 380 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were identified. Antimicrobial test was achieved using 16 different antibiotics.

Results: Result showed that 202/380 (53.2 %) of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to at least three antibiotics (multiresistant) from three different families. Multiresistant strains displayed high resistance to cotrimoxal (76.7 %) followed by penicillin (66.8 %), tetracyclin (57.4 %) and oxacillin (51.5%). While high rate of sensitivity were obtained for rifampicin (78.7 %), fusidic acid (65.8 %), lincomycin (60.5 %) and minocyclin (58.9 %). Few participants 8.9 % were tested HIV positive and 7.9% were living with diabetes. Strains isolated from participants living with these diseases presented higher rate of resistance to antibiotics.

Conclusion: The rate of multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus are constantly in progress in northern Cameroon, most of the strains originated from community. These strains exhibited high resistance level to cotrimoxazol while displaying high sensitivity to rifampicine. People living with chronic diseases presented high resistance to antibiotic recommended for S. aureus infection treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Fungi Associated with Bakery Products in Port Harcourt Metropolis

Williams, Janet Olufunmilayo, Douglas, Salome Ibitein, White, Sukariba Precious

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 12-18
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i1130279

Bakery products such as bread, cakes, etc are staple foods consumed by both the poor and rich. Bread and other bakery products are subject to fungal contamination. This study is aimed at identifying the different fungi associated with bakery products in Port Harcourt metropolis, Nigeria. Sampling was done once monthly for three months, January to March for twenty-three (23) bakery products. Various bakery products were collected from different locations (Abacha Road, Ikwerre Road and Mile 3) in Port Harcourt Metropolis for enumeration, isolation and identification of different fungi that cause spoilage of the bakery products. In the month of January, bread samples had the following fungal counts: 2.0x106sfu/g, 1.0 x106sfu/g, 2.0x106sfu/g, 1.0x106sfu/g, 1.0x106sfu/g and 3.0x106sfu/g. The lowest count was 1.0 x106sfu/g and the highest count was 3.0 x106sfu/g with mean values of 1.07±1.00a and 2.5±0.55a, respectively. During the study, ten (10) different species of fungi were identified. The species are in eight (8) genera, Aspergillus (39.2%),  Fusarium(10.5%), Penicillum(5.7%), Mucor(13.4%), Eurotium (8.1%), Cladosporium (8.1%), Alternaria (3.3%), and Rhizopus (11.5%) species. Statistically, there was a significant difference comparing the growth of the organisms in Abacha Road (2.00±0.89a), Ikwerre Road (5.80±83b) and Mile 3 (4.03±1.23a). It was observed that Abacha Road had the lowest counts of the fungi. There was an increased count in Ikwerre Road as well as Mile 3 compared to Abacha Road. Therefore, Abacha Road < Ikwerre Road ≥ Mile 3 based on the analysis of variance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology, Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Sexually Transmitted Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum Infections in Dschang, West Cameroon

Thomas Djifack Tadongfack, Irina Lydia Sudeu Nitcheu, François Roger Nguepy Keubo, Henri Donald Mutarambirwa, Romeo Hervis Tedjieu, Cyrille Tasson Tatang, Delphine Ndfubu Shey, Aline Camerl Nzeffouo Selabi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 19-29
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i1130280

Background: Genital Mycoplasmas play a key etiological role in several urogenital diseases among both Men and Women. Just to mention the few, they are often responsible of non-gonococcal urethritis, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, low birth weight, infertility and perinatal mortality.

Aim: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of genital infections with Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and their co-infection, as well as the susceptibility profiles to antibiotics commonly prescribed in Dschang, Cameroon.

Study Design: This was a 5-years retrospective cross-sectional study (including data from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2019) conducted at Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital in Dschang, Cameroon.

Methods: Data of 338 participants received at the Gyneco-obstetric and Internal Medicine units, properly recorded, were collected from the Hospital Microbiology Laboratory records.

Results: The overall prevalence to genital Mycoplasmas was 57.4%, with 44.4% attributed to Ureaplasma urealyticum, 5.9% to Mycoplasma hominis and 7.1% to the Co-infection with the two bacteria isolates. Josamycin was the most sensitive antibiotic against Ureaplasma urealyticum (85.3%) and the co-infection (91.7%). Mycoplasma hominis isolates were more susceptible to three fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines with an equal sensitivity rate of 80.0%. Emphasis is on the increasing resistance of co-infection towards Macrolides (83.3%). Summarily, Josamycin was the antibiotic to which genital Mycoplasmas showed the lowest resistance rate (6.2%) while the highest (62.9%) was attributed to Acetylspyramycin.

Conclusion: The implementation of health policies in Cameroon should optimize on mechanisms of diagnosis, proper treatment and monitoring the antibiotic resistance of commonly isolated genital Mycoplasmas, regarding their impact on reproductive health.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Carrying Rate of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae by Slaughterhouse Workers in Lomé, Togo in 2019

Amivi Mawussi Godonou, Fifonsi Adjidossi Gbeasor-Komlanvi, Novissi Tsogbale, Fiali Lack, Sika Dossim, Komla Batassé Batawui, Yaovi Agbekponou Ameyapoh, Koumavi Ekouevi, Anoumou Yaotsè Dagnra, Mounerou Salou

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 30-41
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i1130281

Introduction: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL) represent a real public health concern because of their spread. The role of agri-food chains in transmitting of digestive ESBL-producing bacterial strains in the community, was demonstrated but little work was done in our settings (Togo, west Africa). The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of digestive carrying ESBL producing enterobacteriacae in slaughterhouse workers in Lomé, Togo.

Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in three slaughterhouses in Lomé. Fresh stools of 60 slaughterhouse workers and socio-demographic data were collected during the period of September to October 2019 after obtaining the consent of each participant.

The bacterial strains of interest were isolated on the selective medium Purple Bromocresol + Ceftazidime at 6µg/l. UriselectÒ and API 20E media were used for identification. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed in Mueller-Hinton agar plate diffusion method (Kirby Bauer technic) and according to CASFM-EUCAST recommendations.

Results: The digestive carriage rate of ESBL producing enterobacteriacae among professionals of three slaughterhouses of Lomé was 80% (n=48/60). Escherichia coli was the main bacteria 78.2% (n = 43/55) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 16.4% (n = 9/55) and Enterobacter cloacae 5.4% (n = 3/55). The antibiotic profile of ESBL producing enterobacteriacae showed resistance to Amoxycillin + Clavulanic Acid (26%), Ticarcillin + Clavulanic Acid (86%), Piperacillin + Tazobactam (14%), Cefoxitin (7%) Ciprofloxacin (63%), Levofloxacin (49%), Nalidixic Acid (42%), Chloramphenicol (33%), Gentamicin (21%), Sulfamethoxazole-Trimetoprim (93%). These bacteria were 100% sensitive to Imipenem, Ertapenem, Amikacin and Fosfomycin.

Conclusion: This study revealed a very high carriage rate of ESBL producing Enterobacteriacae among Slaughterhouse Workers in Lomé. It confirmed the major potential role of the agri-food chains in the spread of ESBL producing bacteria in the Community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Myco-deterioration of Smoke-Dried African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Stored at Ambient Temperature

Moses A. Abiala, Abiola M. Okusanya, Afolake A. Olanbiwoninu, Opeyemi A. Abiala, Francis H. Ibadin

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 42-52
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i1130282

The current study was carried out on moulds associated with sequential deterioration of smoke-dried Clarias gariepinus stored at ambient temperature. Samples of smoke-dried catfish were obtained from street shops, commercial vendors and as well as from neighbouring rural markets where large percentage of population used to buy for consumption. Mould infestation, nutritional composition, pH and moisture content were determined in parallel at week 0, 3 and 6. Results of the study pointed that mould load increased with storage period and ranged from 2.00 x 102 to 11.31 x 102 cfu/g. The associated moulds were identified as Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor, A. niger, A. fumigatus, Fusarium solani, Penicillium species and Mucor species.  As the storage duration advances at the ambient temperature, the associated moulds maintained sequential succession in the smoke-dried catfish. Specifically, A. flavus and A. versicolor succeeded A. niger and A. fumigatus till week 3, and A. flavus activated the succession till week 6. Unfortunately, apart from Penicillium commune that joined the activities of P. crysogenum at week 6, other moulds were not succeeded. The crude fat, fibre, protein and ash content decreased while the moisture content of the smoke-dried catfish gradually increased. Slightly acidic to neutral pH was maintained throughout the period of storage. Our study therefore revealed that sequential myco-deterioration of smoke-dried catfish is possible when stored for long period at ambient temperature.