Open Access Original Research Article

Baseline Assessment of Risk Factors of Presumptive Tuberculosis among under Five Children Living with an Index Client under Treatment in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda

Rosemary Tumusiime, Charles Mukasa, Agatha K Kisakya-Maria, Irene Mildred Neumbe, Jerome Odyeny, Bernard Maube, Yahaya Gavamukulya, Rebecca Nekaka

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i530214

Background and Aims: Children in contact with adults having pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) are vulnerable to TB infection and hence contact tracing and screening is important for early detection of infection. However, there are few contacts traced and the prevalence and risk factors for transmission are not well studied. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection and risk factors associated with TB transmission among under five children in household contact with adult pulmonary TB patients.

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in three health facilities with a high TB burden in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda involving all under five household contacts of adults with pulmonary tuberculosis recorded in the TB register from October 2018 to March 2019 and still on treatment. Structured questionnaires were administered to the index clients to obtain their demographic and clinical data about TB, HIV as well as information on the children. Children were screened using the intensive case finding forms to identify presumptive cases.

Results: The total number of index TB Clients line listed were 70. Number of clients traced was 38, 21 (%) of whom had children under five years and a total of 33 children were identified. The number of presumptive cases was 9/33 (27.27%). 77.8% of the presumptive cases were living in poorly ventilated houses.

Conclusion: The study identified children with presumptive TB and various risk factors for TB transmission. Intensive contact tracing can therefore help reduce TB transmission within the communities. It is recommended to undertake studies aiming at improving contact tracing and strategies to eliminate the risk factors to TB transmission.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Chronic Use of Herbicides on Soil Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics

L. E. Tudararo-Aherobo, T. L. Ataikiru

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i530215

Introduction: Herbicide application is a vital strategy of weed control. The effects of these chemicals on the non-target soil microorganisms are very intense; have adverse impact on physicochemical parameters of the soil, which in turn affect soil fertility and plant growth.

Research Gap: There are insufficient literatures on extensive monitoring of the effects of prolonged herbicides use. Existing literatures concerning analysis of effect of prolonged herbicides application on soil are not comprehensive with respect to number of soil characteristics analyzed.

Aim: This study assessed the effects of Atrazine and Glyphosate on physicochemical properties and microbial population of carrot and maize farm soils, exposed to prolonged use at Songhai Delta.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Songhai Delta farms and the Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, from April to July, 2019.

Methodology: These pesticides were applied according to the manufacturers’ instructions at sublethal concentrations. Their effects on soil pH, cation exchange capacity, total organic carbon, nitrates, phosphates, sulphates and microbial populations at two depths (0-15 and 15-30 cm) were assessed using standard methods. Microbial counts were carried out for total heterotrophic bacteria and fungi using the pour plate method.

Results: There were variations in the different properties of the carrot and maize farm soils. Soil pH was higher in maize farm (5.91±0.10) than in carrot farm (5.88±0.06) at the depth of 15-30 cm. The pH, total organic carbon, nitrate content had no significant difference while phosphate and microbial counts were significantly different at P=.05.

Conclusion: This assessment has shown that the herbicides had no influence on pH, total organic carbon, nitrate but a negative one on bacterial and fungal populations with prolonged use. A modification in physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of soil could be used to predict the fertility and health status of soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Microbiological and Sensory Qualities of ‘fufu’ Processed from Grinding Machines and the Traditional Method at Ayigya in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

Matthew Glover Addo, Abdul Hakim Mutala, Kingsley Badu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 20-26
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i530216

This study compares the bacteriological and sensory characteristics of‘ fufu’ processed using grinding machines and traditional method at Ayigya, a suburb of Kumasi between December 2018 and February, 2019. Samples were collected from three different sites for fufu grinding machine and three sampling areas for traditional method using mortar and pestle and were coded GM1, GM2 and GM3; and MP1, MP2 and MP3 respectively. Bacterial counts and isolation from all the samples were done using standard methods. Morphological and biochemical characterization of the isolates were done and the organisms were identified using standard identification key. The sensory qualities of the samples were evaluated by a 20 member panelists of regular consumer of fufu. Bacterial counts of fufu processed using grinding machine ranged between 4.90×103 and 5.88 x 103 CFU/g while those obtained through traditional method of processing were between 2.01×103 and 2.76×103 CFU/g. Of the 72 bacterial isolates, 47(65.3%) of the isolates were Gram negative while 25(34.7%) were Gram-positive. The most frequent isolates in the samples were Staphylococcus sp. (34.7%), Escherichia coli (30.6%), Klebsiella sp. (22.2%) and Proteus sp. (12.5%). Consumer acceptance of ‘fufu’ obtained from the use of traditional pestle and mortar was significantly higher (P ˂ 0.001) than those obtained from the use of grinding machine. The study concluded that Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Proteus and E. coli are associated with both the fufu grinding machines and the traditional mortar and pestle products and that consumers prefer the processed ‘fufu’ from the traditional source to the grinding machine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Histopathological Effects of Fascioliasis in Cattle Slaughtered in Ikot Eneobong Abattoir, Calabar, Nigeria

Usang Anok Ukam, Imalele Edema Enogiomwan, Effanga Emmanuel Offiong, Osondu-Anyanwu Chinyere

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 27-35
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i530218

Aims: Studies were carried out to determine the prevalence, intensity, economic loss and histopathological effects of fascioliasis in cattle slaughtered in Ikot Eneobong abattoir, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study involved Post-Mortem examination of 384 liver samples from slaughtered cattle.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, between April – July, 2015.

Methodology: A total of384 liver samples were examined for individuals of Fasciola gigantica by making length-wise incision on the ventral side of the liver. Recovered flukes were counted and grouped into different levels of intensity. Infected livers recovered were subjected to histopathological analysis using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining technique. The economic loss due to the infection was determined based on the current market price per kg weight of cattle liver.

Results: Out of the 384 livers examined, 64 (16.67%) were found positive for fascioliasis. The month of July had the highest prevalence of infected livers (25.64%) while the month of April which had the lowest prevalence of infected livers (11.02%) (P=.05). Out of the 64 diseased livers, 58 (90.6%) had light worm load, 5 (7.8%) had moderate worm load and 1 (1.6%) had heavy worm load with numbers significantly higher in July compared with April, May and June (P=.05). In the four months study period, 320kg of livers from 64 cattle valued at ₦256,000 were lost due to infection. Histological examination of infected livers revealed necrosis, fibrosis, degenerated hepatocytes, proliferation of the bile ductules and marked infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells.

Conclusion: This study has established the prevalence, economic loss and histopathological consequences of fascioliasis in Ikot Eneobong abattoir. As such it is important that the routine examination of slaughtered ruminants be conducted prior to their presentation for public consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Nine Brands of Toothpaste on Streptococcus mutans Isolated from the Mouth of Students in Veritas University, Abuja

T. O. Ozoude, T. C. Okolie, O. E. Effiom

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 36-41
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i530219

Dental caries is an infectious microbiological disease of the teeth that end up in the destruction of dental hard tissues. The use of toothpaste has been used to reduce the bacterial load in the mouth because they contain antimicrobial properties such as triclosan, fluoride, and so on. The study aimed to determine the effect of nine brands of toothpaste on Streptococcus mutans isolated from the mouth of students in veritas university. Following the isolation of Streptococcus mutans from samples collected from the mouths of Veritas students’, the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of the dentifrices was determined by modified agar well diffusion method. In this method, Muller Hinton agar plates were seeded with a loop full of 24-hour cultures of the bacterial isolate. A sterile 8 mm cork-borer was used to cut one central and five wells at equidistance in each of the plates. 0.3 ml of the dentifrice dilutions was introduced into each of the five wells while the same amount of sterile distilled water was introduced into the first well as control. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the diameter of zones of inhibition (in mm). The diameter in which the bacteria were inhibited was indicative of the toothpaste’s antibacterial potential.  The zones of inhibition on the growth of the test strain were defined by the location where visible growth had been inhibited. All the plates were made in triplicates and the experiments repeated twice. The result showed that Mentadent-P was the most effective dentifrice with an inhibition zone of 2.8 mm, Pepsodent had inhibition zone of 2.6 mm, Oral B with 2.3 mm, Close up with 2.2 mm, followed by Colgate with a diameter of 1.9 mm, Special Lucky with a diameter of 1.6 mm, Darbur Promise with a diameter of 1.6 mm, Maclean’s with a zone of inhibition of 1.5 mm, and MY- MY with the least effective toothpaste with a zone of inhibition of 1.0 mm in diameter. The results also showed that toothpaste containing fluoride as their main antimicrobial agent proved more effective against streptococcusmutans than other toothpaste not containing fluoride as their main antimicrobial agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Producers among Gram-negative Bacteria from Clinical and Environmental Sources in Two Tertiary Hospitals in Makurdi, Nigeria

Florence Bose Omoregbe, Obasola Ezekiel Fagade

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 42-53
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i530220

Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) enzymes are produced by many Gram-negative bacteria to nearly all antibiotics. Clinical bacteria isolates were obtained from various clinical samples from the two healthcare facilities. Sewer wastewater and sediments were also collected from both hospitals using standard sampling techniques and bacteria isolated using pour plate technique. Multiple drug resistant patterns were determined using disc diffusion technique. Antibiotics sensitivity of the isolates was verified using disc diffusion method. Detection of ESBL producing bacteria was done using double disc synergy test. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics. Clinical bacteria (403) were obtained, out of which 299 were confirmed Gram-negative, 218 from Federal Medical Centre (FMC) and 81 from Benue State Teaching Hospital (BSUTH). Thirty-nine Gram-negative bacteria were also isolated from the environmental samples. The ESBL producers in clinical isolates were 69 (FMC) and 42 (BSUTH) while in environmental isolates they were eight and four respectively. Out of a total of 338 environmental and clinical isolates from the two hospitals, 216 shown resistance/intermediate resistance to Ceftazidime. Of these 216, 123(36.39%) were positive for ESBLs production.- space From FMC, ESBLs producing bacteria are highly sensitive to imipenem with sensitivity frequency of 62 while they were highly resistant to ceftazidime with a frequency of 52. Age groups 0-5 had the highest percentage distribution of 21.43% and 10.14% from BSUTH and FMC respectively. ESBLs producing bacteria showed multidrug resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria and Fungi Associated with Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

D. N. Ogbonna, S. I. Douglas, V. G. Awari

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 54-69
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i530221

Many substances known to have toxic properties are regularly introduced into the environment through human activity. These substances which include hydrocarbons range in degree of toxicity and danger to human health. Frequent oil spills incidents have become a problem to ecological protection efforts. Conventional methods to remove, reduce or mitigate toxic substances introduced into soil via anthropogenic activities suffer setbacks due to the level of risk involved but bioremediation offers an alternative method to detoxify contaminants especially if the soil conditions are amended with organic nutrients or growth enhancing co-substrates. This study was therefore aimed characterizing hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms associated with crude oil contaminated soils. Soils were obtained from the Rivers State University Agricultural farm contaminated deliberately with crude oil and allowed for 21 days to mimic the natural polluted soil. Sample collection and analyses were carried out according to standard microbiological procedures while characterization of the isolates was done using genomic studies. The results of microbial counts obtained from the soil samples for total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 2.10 x108 to 2.58 x108 cfu/g, Total heterotrophic fungi had 1.6 x105 to 2.0 x105 cfu/g while the hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria ranged from 8.0 x103 to 5.0 x104 cfu/g and total hydrocarbon utilizing fungi ranged from 9.0 x103 to 7.0 x104 cfu/g in the contaminated soil. Five hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial species were identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Comamonas testosteroni and Chryseobacterium cucumeris while five hydrocarbon utilizing fungal species were identified as Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium brocae, Fusarium solani, Kodamaea ohmeri and Lentinus squarrosulus. Bacillus and Penicillium species were predominantly isolated from the soil. This may be due to the ability of the organisms to produce spores, which may shield them from the toxic effects of the hydrocarbons. Since these organisms are able to utilize crude oil as their sole carbon source. Hence, can be used for bioremediation of crude oil polluted environment.