Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant Women in Ogun State, Nigeria

John Okeleke Ochei, Seyi Samson Enitan, Esther Ngozi Adejumo, Gideon Taiwo Faloye, Feyi Oniyide

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/43736

Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a common health problem among women and pregnancy is a predisposing factor.

Aims: To determine the prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection among pregnant women in Ogun State, Nigeria.

Study Design: This is a prospective, analytical and Institutional based study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ante-natal Clinic, General Hospital, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria, between March and May, 2017.

Methodology: Clean catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from 100 consenting pregnant woman with no prior antibiotic or herbal therapy in the preceding two weeks. Prior to specimen collection, their demographic and clinical Information were collected by oral interview and administration of a structured questionnaire. Urine macroscopy, microscopy and culture were carried out using standard methods. Isolates were characterized by their colonial morphology, Gram staining, motility and biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by the disc diffusion method.

Results: Out of the 100 urine samples examined, 31 were positive for significant bacteriuria (≥105 cfu/ml), and therefore a prevalence of 31% among the study participants and the highest occurrence was among participants who were 21-25 years old (29.0%), married (74.2%), Christians (77.4%), Yoruba by tribe (90.3%), and traders (38.7%). Still, the prevalence of UTI was significantly higher (P<0.05) among participants with secondary education (45.2%) and among those with pregnancy in the second trimester (48.4%). Eighteen (58.1%) out of the 60 participants with no knowledge of UTI were positive for UTI (P<0.05). Also, 14 (45.2%) out of the 37 participants who indicated past history of UTI, were positive for UTI with P value <0.05. Most of them indicated symptoms consistent with UTI: frequency of urination (64.5%), dysuria (16.1%), haematuria (16.1%), urgency (51.6%) and nocturia (54.8%). Frequency of urination was found to be more strongly associated with the occurrence of UTI among participants than other symptoms (P<0.05). A total of 9 different organisms were recovered from the participants. These include Gram positive and negative bacteria, parasites and fungi at varying frequency: K. pneumoniae (26.5%), E. coli (26.5%), Proteus mirabilis (11.8%), Klebsiella oyntocum (2.9%), Citrobacter freundii (2.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (17.7%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (2.9%), Candida albicans (5.9%) and Trichomonas vaginalis (2.9%). Seven Gram positive isolates were recovered from the urine samples and were found to be most sensitive to Ofloxacin (100%), but least sensitive to Augmentin (0%). On the other hand, the 24 Gram negative isolates recovered from the urine samples were found to be most sensitive to Ofloxacin (95.8%), but least sensitive to Gentamicin (8.3%). 

Conclusion: UTI exists among pregnant women in Ogun State with a prevalent rate of 31%. Routine screening of pregnant women for UTI is therefore very crucial in order to prevent adverse effects on both maternal and foetal health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Properties of the Crude Ethanolic, Methanolic and Aqueous Bark and Seed Extracts of Citrullus lanatus Fruit

Francis Onyeka Ijewereme, Saadatu Muazu Jodi, Istifanus Haruna Nkene, Rejoice Helma Abimiku, Yakubu Boyi Ngwai, Taibat Ibrahim

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/44115

Medicinal plants represent rich sources of potential antimicrobial agents. Studies on antibacterial and biofilm inhibitory properties of the ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous bark and seed extracts of Citrullus lanatus (C. lanatus) fruit was carried out. The bark and seed of C. lanatus were obtained from Karu market, Abuja and extracted separately with ethanol, methanol and water by cold maceration method. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were evaluated using agar well diffusion method against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi. The Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the extracts were determined using agar dilution method. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also carried out using the standard method. The biofilm inhibitory activity of the extracts was evaluated using micro titer plate method. The best activity was against S. aureus and E. coli with zone of inhibition range of 9.00-22.00 mm (S. aureus) and 8.00-20.00 mm (E. coli). The order of activity of the extracts was: methanolic bark > ethanolic bark = aqueous bark > methanolic seed > ethanolic seed > aqueous seed. The MICs of the extracts of both bark and seed are within the range of 6.25-50.00 mg/ml, and the MBCs ranged from 12.50-50.00 mg/ml. Phytochemicals common to all extracts were flavonoids and phenolics; tannins and saponins were detected only in the methanolic and ethanolic bark and seed extracts; alkaloids and steroids were also found only in aqueous bark and seed extracts. Methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous bark and seed extracts at 12.50-50.00% MBCs inhibited biofilm production by the test organism in the range 4.30-95.30%. The crude methanolic bark and seed extracts were more active on the test isolates than the ethanolic and aqueous extracts. The presence of flavonoids and phenolics in all the crude extract may be evidence that they are responsible for the antibacterial activity. In addition, all the crude had antibiofilm activity. Further in vitro and in vivo studies on antibacterial activity, biofilm inhibition and dissolution as well as pharmacological effects of fractions and pure compounds of bark and seed extracts of C. lanatus should be carried out.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dental Sealants on Oral Microbial Burden of Scardovia wiggsiae within a Pediatric Population: A Pilot Study

Kevin Quan, Karl Kingsley

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/42947

Aim: Dental caries is among the most prevalence and pervasive of childhood infections, with prevention factors such as fluoride and dental sealants regarded as the most effective prevention and treatment modalities. Many studies of dental sealants have focused on traditional caries-causing microbial agents, such as Streptococcus mutans – although the lack of clinical information regarding the novel cariogenic pathogen Scardovia wiggsiae s makes the primary aim of this study an evaluation of the prevalence of this organism and the effect of dental sealants on this pathogen.

Study Design: This was a prospective, non-randomized experimental study design.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Nevada, Las Vegas – School of Dental Medicine pediatric clinic between July 2016 and March 2018.

Methodology: Using an approved protocol, saliva was collected from pediatric patients at a Nevada dental school, which was subsequently screened for the presence of Scardovia. If treatment included dental sealants, saliva was collected at follow up appointments and screened using Polymerase Chain Reaction or PCR to determine any effects on the oral microbial burden of this organism.

Results: Pre-treatment samples (n=39) were matched with post-treatment samples (n=26) for DNA isolation and screening using PCR primers specific for Scardovia. Placement of dental sealants was sufficient to reduce the levels of detectable Scardovia among those patients initially testing positive (23%). However, most samples were initially Scardovia-negative (77%) and this study revealed a subset of these Scardovia-negative patients were subsequently found to harbor Scardovia from their corresponding post-sealant samples (28%).

Conclusion: This may be among the first studies to evaluate the effects of dental sealants on S. wiggsiae, demonstrating dental sealants may be sufficient to reduce Scardovia levels in some patients, but also allowing some patients with very low  (even undetectable) levels of Scardovia to exhibit rapid and detectable changes in these levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extracellular Amylases Produced by Bacillus thuringiensis

Brenda Román-Ponce, Ramón Cruz-Camarillo, En Tao Wang, Otto Raúl Leyva-Ovalle, Luz Irene Rojas-Avelizapa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/44092

Bacillus thuringiensis has shown a great biotechnological potential due to its insecticidal Cry-proteins production. Also, this bacterium produces different extracellular enzymes. The study aimed to evaluate the amylolytic system of B. thuringiensis strain Bt LBIT 418 cultured in a liquid medium, with starch as a carbon source, where the bacteria secreted the maximum amount of endoamylase after 10h of incubation, in the middle of the exponential phase of growth. Its’ cleaves action-released dextrins composed for five of more glucose residues. An exoamylase able to convert these dextrins in maltotriose, maltose and glucose appeared at once, given rise to a new increment of the bacterial growth. An α-glucosidase was also secreted, but covering the 40h of the incubation period. Other related hydrolases as glucoamylase and maltase were not found, but proteases whose synthesis profile correlated with the endoamylase were detected, although both activities presented independent synthesis regulations.

In contrast, the exoamylase could be purified 98 times with a recovering of 14%, by fractionating lyophilised supernatants from 13h of cultures, in columns of CM-Sephadex G-50 and G-100. The enzyme showed a MW of 83.2 kDa and maximum activity at pH 7-8 and 50°C, while the enzyme stability was higher at pH 6-7.5 and 55°C. The enzyme was inactivated with 0.01 M EDTA and reactivated with 0.01 M CaCl2, showed that this amylase was a metalloenzyme. Furthermore, its’ thiol-dependent characteristic was unclear, because the enzyme was inhibited by 0.01M HgCl2, but did not by 0.01 M pHMB. The results suggest that Bt LBIT 418 produced at least three different amylases and it is the first report concerning about characterisation of the amylolytic system of B. thuringiensis. This supports the hypothesis that it is possible to obtain in a sole fermentation process, the insecticidal Bt microcrystals, as well as extracellular enzymes with potential biotechnological applications as the amylases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Susceptibility of Some Clinically Resistant Bacterial Isolates to Thyme Essential Oil, Chitosan and Lactobacillus reuteri

Lobna S. El-Hosseiny, Moustafa A. El-Shenawy, Hoda H. Baghdadi, Nesma N. Moussa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/44155

Numerous avenues are currently being investigated to curtail multidrug resistance.  The antibacterial activity of naturally derived agents, including thyme essential oil, chitosan and a probiotic Lactobacillus strain was screened against clinically resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella. Thyme essential oil was hydro-distilled from wild Thymus capitatus and its chemical composition was profiled by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy. Chitosan was prepared from shrimp shells and characterised by infrared spectroscopy. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella were investigated, and their susceptibility to the prepared natural agents was assessed by agar well diffusion technique. Both Gram-negative isolates exhibited similarly high resistance rates to piperacillin, co-amoxiclav, cephalothin, ceftazidime and imipenem. Meanwhile, 83% of S. aureus isolates were of the MRSA phenotype. The tested isolates displayed varying degrees of susceptibilities to the tested natural agents where thyme essential oil exhibited the highest inhibitory effect followed by chitosan and the culture supernatant of L. reuteri respectively. Albeit the high resistance displayed by both E. coli and Klebsiella isolates, they were the most susceptible to thyme essential oil. Contrariwise, L. reuteri exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against S. aureus isolates. Intriguingly, there was a general tendency for higher effectiveness of the natural products tested against the most resistant isolates implying that these natural products may have a resistance modifying potential. The presently investigated natural agents hold a promising potential against clinically significant multidrug resistant bacteria.