Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition, Genotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activities of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss against OXA-48 Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Major Hospitals of Kurdistan Province, Iran

Pegah Shakib, Morovat Taherikalani, Rashid Ramazanzadeh

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/42064

Aims: Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss is a flowering plant that the biological activities of the declared species D. kotschyi such as a warm herbal medicine for rheumatoid diseases, headaches, congestion, stomach disorders, liver treatment, and other usages. The current study aims to investigate the chemical composition, genotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss against OXA-48 producing K. pneumoniae isolated in Kurdistan province, Iran.

Methodology: Fourteen OXA-48 producing K. pneumoniae were isolated by the PCR assay from major hospitals in Kurdistan province, Iran. GC–MS examination, and in vitro antimicrobial and genotoxicity activities of this essential oil was studied. The data was analyzed using SPSS software and ANOVA.

Results: Out of 70 K. pneumoniae clinical strains, 14 OXA-48 producing K. pneumoniae were isolated by the PCR assay. The chemical composition of the oils contained Monoterpene Hydrocarbons, Oxygenated Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbons, and Oxygenated Sesquiterpenes. D. kotschyi essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against all of the tested strains, with inhibition values varying from >5000 to 1250 μg/ml for MIC and >5000 μg/ml for MBC in bacteria. In the Ames test, D. kotschyi had a strong anti-mutagenesis effect.

Conclusion: According to the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that D. kotschyi essential oils could be applied as a safe antibacterial agent for treatment of OXA-48 producing K. pneumoniae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of Water from Rivers in Keffi, Central Nigeria

Rine Christopher Reuben, Silas Dogara Gyar, Yakubu Aliyu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/42547

Four water samples were in respective cases collected from river Oadaji, Northern River (NR) designated NR1-NR4 and river Kantou the Southern River (SR) designated SR1-SR4 both of Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Main Campus land area, and were analysed for some physicochemical and microbiological parameters using standard methods. The results obtained were compared with Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) and WHO standards for drinking and recreational water. The results showed Temperature range 23.50-27.00°C, pH (6.00-6.45), Conductivity (82.95-125.70 μS/cm), Total Dissolved Solids (20.0-58.0 mg/L), Turbidity (36.30-8.95NTU), Dissolved Oxygen (5.50-13.00 mg/L), Biological Oxygen Demand (5.78-8.68mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand (85-145 mg/L), Total Hardness (180-520 mg/L), Nitrate (4.40-25.00 mg/L), Chlorides (10.50-31.45 mg/L), Phosphate (0.10-0.51mg/L), Sulphate (3.50-18.61 mg/L). Results of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS) analysis for trace metals showed that the metal concentrations were minute in both the Northern and Southern rivers; Lead (0.02±0.011 and 0.03±0.017 mg/L) Copper (0.01±0.003 and 0.01±0.002 mg/L), Zinc (0.06±0.020 and 0.11±0.016mg/L), and Iron (0.16±0.026 and 0.12±0.022 mg/L). Nevertheless, the concentration of lead was above the acceptable limit. There was no statistically significant relationship (P>0.05) between these metals.  The analysis of microbiological parameters revealed very high Total Viable Count for all the water samples, ranging between 25 ×104 to 42 ×104cfu/ml, and Most Probable Number index for coliforms to be ≥2400/100 ml, higher than the acceptable limits. Also, E. coli, Salmonella spp, Proteus spp, Bacillus spp, Enterobacter spp,Klebsiella spp and Pseudomonas spp were isolated from the samples examined. The usability of water from these rivers for domestic purposes is not recommended, hence proper treatment is needed before they are consumed or put to any reasonable domestic applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Retracted: Molecular Identification and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Bacteria Associated with Decomposed Domestic Food Wastes from Akure Metropolis

Oluwabusayo M. Ologun, Bolatito Boboye, Oluwole O. Owoyemi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/42155

Aim: This research was designed to assess the molecular identities and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the bacteria isolated from decomposed domestic food wastes in Akure metropolis.

Methodology: Fifteen bacteria were obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology Akure. The DNA molecules of the bacterial isolates were extracted using bacterial DNA Mini-Prep Kit. The DNA extracted was amplified and sequenced using universal bacterial primers and ABI Prism DNA sequencer respectively prior their nucleotides blast. The antibiotic sensitivity test of the bacterial isolates was carried out using plate assay.

Results: The identified bacterial isolates including Bacillus megateriumClostridium difficileB. thuringiensisB. sphaericusB. mycoidesB. cereusPseudomonas aspleniiPaenibacillus maceransLactobacillus jenseniiB. badiusB. licheniformisB. subtilis and L. delbrueckii retained their original name after the molecular identification with the exception of C. humiferium and B. pumilus that changed to C.pseudotuberculosis and B. cereus respectively while five bacteria showed no result at the sequencing stage. The molecular techniques revealed the strain name of the bacteria. L. delbrueckii was resistant to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, cefriazone while susceptible to erythromycin with a zone of inhibition (59.77±0.66 mm). C. difficile was susceptible to gentamycin with a zone of inhibition (13.93±0.47 mm).

Conclusion: From this study, the bacterial isolates (C. pseudotuberculosisB. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, and B. cereus) demonstrated multidrug resistant property. Therefore, this could constitute a serious health threat to the people living in the environment where the wastes are dumped indiscriminately.

Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 07th November 2019. Related policy is available here: http://goo.gl/lI77Nn

Open Access Original Research Article

A Retrospective Study on the Prevalence and Health Worker’s Perspective on Hepatitis B virus Infection in Ngora District, Eastern Uganda

Ssegawa Lawrence, Kasuka Iga Arafat, Angeyo Grace Samantha, Mudebo Emmanuel, Nakhabala Moses, Linda Kyomuhendo Jovia, Nabongho Aaron Kenneth, Ahimbisibwe Joseph, Ibilat Gorret, Rebecca Nekaka, Iramiot Jacob Stanley

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/42575

Background: Hepatitis B virus infection is a global health problem and it is estimated that one-third of the world population has been infected with HBV with serological evidence of past or present infection. It is estimated that over 400 million people are chronically infected with Hepatitis B globally. Currently, its prevalence among the Ugandans is about 10% (3.5 million people).  The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and Health workers’ perspective on Hepatitis B in Ngora District, Eastern Uganda.

Methods: The study involved mixed methods. A retrospective study was used to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B in Ngora district where laboratory records were reviewed. A questionnaire was administered to the research participants to assess their knowledge and attitude on Hepatitis B. Consecutive sampling technique was used for selection where every health workers on duty who consented to participate took part in the study. Questionnaires were administered to the participants and analysis was done by use of SPSS.

Results: The overall prevalence of hepatitis B in Ngora was 7.5% (3939/52603). Majority of the Health Workers had low knowledge on the cause, signs and symptoms, transmission, risk factors, complications and management of hepatitis B. Majority of the health workers had a positive attitude towards hepatitis B as expressed by their willingness to participate in screening, caring for the patients and participation in vaccination

Conclusion: Whereas the prevalence of Hepatitis B in Ngora district was lower than the national average, it was high compared to the prevalence in the eastern regionHealth workers’ Knowledge on Hepatitis B in Ngora district was low and this may have contributed to the high prevalence of Hepatitis B in Ngora district.

Recommendation: We recommend training of all the health workers in Ngora District in form of short courses on continuous medical education (CMEs) on Hepatitis B to bridge knowledge gap.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carbapenemase-Encoding Genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Multiplex PCR Detection, Microarray Based Detection and Gene Sequencing

Ayman K. El Essawy, Hala M. Abu Shady, Bassem M. El Baiaa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/42911

Background: In 2017 the World Health Organization (WHO) classified carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas among the most critical multidrug-resistant bacteria for urgent attention.  

Aims: Evaluation of two molecular methods for detection of carbapenemase encoding genes in carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), and alignment of detected gene sequences with gene bank data.

Materials and Methods: Twenty two previously detected CRPA isolates were tested for bacterial identification and antibiotic sensitivity by verigene-nanosphere technique. Verigene-nanosphere microarray based assay and multiplex PCR were tested for detection of carbapenem encoding genes. Carbapenemase encoding genes sequencing of parent strain and its UV mutant followed by nucleotide sequence alignments were conducted. Bacterial resistance to carbapenem was tested after induced plasmid curing by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and heat.

Results: Typical results of conventional PCR were obtained using multiplex PCR for a set of genes, including IMP, VIM, SME. Verigene-nanosphere detected 3, 0, 0 among 5, 4, 11 known positive strains for VIM, IMP, KPC genes respectively. Carbapenem resistance was preserved after treating CRPA strain by heat or SDS. The nucleotide sequence alignments of VIM, IMP and KPC genes showed relatedness with many Gram negative species. VIM gene was lost in UV mutant and the IMP and KPC genes were preserved, but 1-2% sequence modification occurred without a change in resistance to imipenem and meropenem.

Conclusion: The developed multiplex PCR detected successfully a set of carbapenem encoding genes, while microarray based verigene-nanosphere failed to detect most of the genes under the current experimental conditions. The nucleotide alignments of VIM, IMP and KPC genes revealed that these gene sequences are distributed among species of Gram negative bacteria. IMP and KPC genes were preserved in UV mutant with no damage, repaired damage or little modification of the nucleotide sequence and meanwhile carbapenem resistance was preserved.