Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Antimicrobial Properties of Myristica fragans (Nutmeg) on Microorganisms Isolated from Veritas University Hostels Bathroom and their Surfaces

T. O. Ozoude, C. C. Mbah, E. U. Amacheree

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i230157

The bathroom which is a place for people to clean up themselves is also prone to contamination. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of nutmeg against isolates from the bathroom using different solvents such as acetone, ethanol and water for the extraction of the nutmeg. In this study, samples from different areas in Veritas University male and female hostel bathrooms were screened for bacterial and fungal contamination and results from the study showed that bacterial genera such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and fungus Aspergillus were found in this public bathroom surfaces. The Cup-plate Agar Diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial potency of the nutmeg while the Filter paper method was used to determine its antifungal properties. The results proved that nutmeg has great anti-microbial properties thus was capable of inhibiting the growth of these isolates. Results from this study also revealed that when acetone was used as the solvent at 75% concentration, it was the most effective for the antibacterial susceptibility test while ethanoic solvent at the same concentration was the most effective for the antifungal susceptibility testing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of in-vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Cow Urine from Different Altitudinal and Climatic Region of Nepal

Dirgha Raj Joshi, Pramod Aryal, Mukesh Kumar Chaudhary, Prawin Kumar BK, Suvendra Prasad Yadav, Pratiksha Rawal, Nisha Adhikari, Ravin Bhandari

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i230158

Background: Cow urine has been widely used as therapeutic or additive agents in different parts of Nepal, mainly to treat infections, cuts, burns, etc. Cow urine has been considered as sacred and holy water and used in many rituals and worshipping purposes. Apart from therapeutic and rituals ceremony cow urines are also used in purification and disinfecting the houses.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the in-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of cow urine from different altitudes across Nepal.

Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of cow urines was carried out by using  2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as free radicals. The antibacterial activity of cow urines was tested by the agar disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive).

Results: The urine sample from Muktinath (Subalpine region) showed the highest 44.8±0.21% inhibition against DPPH free radicals. The urine samples from Jajarkot and Marpha (Temperate zone) showed 39.70±0.43% and 37.30±0.15% inhibition against DPPH free radicals respectively. The urine samples from Palpa and Shyangja (Subtropical region) showed 30.00±0.24 and 34.4±0.01 percent inhibition of DPPH radicals. The samples from Butwal and Dhangadhi (Tropical region) showed the least percentage inhibition of 23.9±0.08 and 21.12±0.1 respectively. Amongst the entire sample, the subalpine region of cow urine (Muktinath 3710m) made known the highest inhibition zone such as 10.56±0.05mm against S. aureus and 7.46±0.15 against E.coli.

Conclusion: Our study has concluded that cow urines have the antibacterial and antioxidant activities and vary in potency according to altitudinal and climatic differences. Hence cow urine from the subalpine zone has better antibacterial and antioxidant activity than that of lower altitudinal climatic zones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Quality and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Microorganisms Associated with Stored Vegetables in Port Harcourt

M. E. Inana, D. N. Ogbonna, S. I. Douglas

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i230159

Aim: Vegetables are good sources of nutrients such as minerals, oil, vitamins and carbohydrates and are used in preparing different delicacies such as soups and salads. This study was aimed at investigating the microbiological quality and antibiotic resistance pattern of microorganisms associated with stored vegetables in raffia baskets.

Methodology: The vegetables were obtained from the Nigerian Stored Products Research institute (NSPRI) farm in Port Harcourt. Ten grams (10 g) each of fresh vegetables were homogenized differently in 90ml of sterile diluent. Aliquot (0.1 ml) of 10-3 and 10-5 dilutions of each vegetable sample was plated on nutrient agar plates and incubated at 37ºC for 24hours. Identified isolates were standardized using the 0.5 McFarland standard. This was done by transferring colonies of the test isolates into sterile 4 mL normal saline and comparing the turbidity of the isolate in the test tubes with the already prepared 0.5 McFarland. The disc diffusion method was used in determining the susceptibility pattern of the microorganisms against the antibiotics. In this method, the standardized inoculums were seeded aseptically on freshly prepared Mueller Hinton agar plates. Whatman discs which have been impregnated with different concentrations of the antibiotics were placed on the seeded plates and incubated at 37ºC for 18-24 hours. 

Results: Zones of clearance or inhibition on plates were recorded. The genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bordetella, Staphylococcus, Myroides, Escherichia, Serratia, Micrococcus and Acetobacter were identified as predominant microbes from the vegetables.

Conclusion: Despite the high level of resistance to the antibiotics, Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin were the most effective and preferred drugs of choice for treatment of infections arising from the consumption of these vegetables. Adequate heating and blanching of vegetables is required at all times to prevent food poisoning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Current Susceptibility Trend of Antibiotics in a Tertiary Care Hospital - Need to Emphasize on Alternate Therapeutic Agents

Manisha Khandait, Tapesh Bansal, Pankaj Mandale

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i230160

Introduction: In the light of changing anti-microbial resistance pattern, the understanding of the local antibiogram is essential in the antibiotic selection procedures and preparation of hospital antibiotic policy.

Aim: This retrospective study was aimed to analyze the antibacterial susceptibility pattern of major isolates from ICU and IPD.

Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done for a total of 565 Gram-negative isolates including E. coli, K. pnuemoniae, A. baumannnii and P. aeruginosa from ICU and IPD patients enrolled between July 2016 to December 2016.

Results: The majority of the isolates were reported from urine samples (52%) in IPD and sputum (59%) in ICU. The susceptibility to BL/BLI was 50-75% in IPD patients and Carbapenem susceptibility was reported in more than 75% except P. aeruginosa. In ICU patients, the beta-lactam/beta-lactam inhibitor (BL/BLI) susceptibility ranged between 20-60% and the carbapenem susceptibility was around 40%-75%. The susceptibility of CSE-1034 (Ceftriaxone + Sulbactam + EDTA) was almost similar to minocycline and amikacin ranging from 50-90% against different species. Compared to carbapenems, the CSE-1034 performed overall better than carbapenems against P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii and was comparable to carbapenems against Enterobacteriaceae. The susceptibility of colistin ranged from 92-97% in both IPD and ICU isolates.

Conclusion: Considering the value of carbapenems and colistin as the last option for multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections, irrational prescription of these drugs should be stopped. The use of ampicillin-sulbactam, cefepime and gentamicin from 1st line antibiotics in ICU patients can help to reduce the load on 2nd line antibiotics. Among 2nd line drugs, CSE-1034 along with amikacin should be an empirical choice of treatment for bacterial infections where the 1st line drugs are suspected to fail and the need of carbapenems arises.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Multi-Drug Resistance Traits in Probiotic Bacterial Species from Fermented Milk Products in Bangladesh

Asif Shahriar, Mahenaj Alo, Md. Fahad Hossain, Talha Bin Emran, Md. Zia Uddin, Arkajyoti Paul

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2019/v29i230161

Aims: Matured nourishment like yogurt and cheese are great wellsprings of probiotic living beings. The present study was carried out for isolation, identification and antibiotic profiling of some important bacteria in, local fermented milk-products sold in the market of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Methodology: Twenty types of yogurt and fifteen types of cheese samples were collected from two different local market. De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS agar) and Streptococcus thermophilus agar (ST agar) were used for the isolation of probiotic micro-organisms from these different fermented dairy products. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria belonging to the species of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus was done by using morphological feature, Gram staining, biochemical tests (catalase test, some carbohydrate fermentation tests, alpha haemolysis test, starch hydrolysis test, bile salt tolerance test). The antibiotic profiling was performed by utilizing twelve distinct antibiotics: amikacin (10 μg), amoxicillin (15 μg), azithromycin (30 μg), bacitracin (30 μg), chloramphenicol (30 μg), ciprofloxacin (10 μg), erythromycin (30 μg), gentamicin (30 μg), kanamycin (30 μg), penicillin g (30 μg), tetracycline (15 μg), vancomycin (15 μg) to identified the multi-drug resistance of probiotic micro-organisms.

Results: The outcomes demonstrated that specific bacterial species (L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus) were utilized in the production of yogurt and cheese samples, that may have unnecessary antibiotic resistances which can be a risk if they transfer antibiotic resistance genes to pathogenic microbes. Notably, L. bulgaricus was effectively susceptible against bacitracin and penicillin g.

Conclusion: Yogurt and cheese are one kind of probiotic source, made up by using probiotic starter cultures (Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus) which were identified in this study. Most of the probiotic micro-organisms were resistant against these widely accepted commercial antibiotics. These resistant lactic acid bacteria may transfer their resistance genes to pathogenic microorganisms. It can be a significant cause of concern for human and animal health.