Open Access Short Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Moulds from "Moi-Moi" a Locally Prepared Porridge from Bambara Groundnuts (Vigna subterranea)

E. O. Esho, O. O. George, O. V. Olagoke

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/37294

The preparation and fungal spoilage of “moi-moi” from Bambara groundnut were investigated. Its preparation followed the steaming of beans pudding. Pour plate technique was used to estimate the fungal population and isolates were identified using standard methods. The mean value of the total fungal population estimation on the “moi-moi” from Bambara groundnut, done 24 hours after preparation was 9.0 × 10cfu/g. The value obtained for “moi-moi” kept without preservation for 48 hours was 11.4 × 10cfu/g. Aspergillus flavus, A. tamarii, Mucor spand Rhizopus sp. were the fungi recovered. Good preservation is needed for “moi-moi” for prevention of fungal spoilage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Broad-range pH/Temperature-stable Cellulase from a Novel Hydrocarbon Contaminated Mangrove soil Bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis VVA21

Victoria Ginika Awari, Abiye Anthony Ibiene, Caroline Nchedo Ariole, Victor Ezebuiro

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/41940

Aim: This study reports the production of cellulase by Bacillus licheniformis VVA21 isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated Kegbara-Dere mangrove in Ogoniland, Nigeria.

Methodology: Baseline physicochemical characteristics of the hydrocarbon contaminated soil were established. Twenty-two bacterial isolates were screened for cellulolytic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) agar using the spread plate technique. The isolate with the highest zone of clearance was selected and assayed further. Crude cellulase was extracted and partial purification achieved by ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by dialysis, and final purification by Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The best cellulase-producing bacterium was identified by analytical profile index (API) and 16S rRNA gene analyses.

Results: The contaminated soil revealed sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contents of 30.23, 24.77, 17.56, 11.66, 100.22 and 11560 mg/kg, respectively. Out of the 22 bacterial isolates screened for cellulolytic activity, isolate VVA21 gave the highest zone of clearance (16 mm) with maximum cellulase activity of 871.6 U/mL after 48 h of incubation. Specific cellulase activity increased across the different purification steps (from crude fraction to Sephadex G-100 fraction), ranging between 16.8 and 68.9 U/ /mg/mL. The purified cellulase was stable over a pH range of 4 to 10 and temperature range of 30 to 100°C. The best stability for pH (102.46 U/mg) was observed at pH of 8.5 whereas the best stability for temperature (99.96 U/mg) was observed at 30°C. API and 16S rRNA gene product analyses revealed the best cellulase-producing strain as Bacillus licheniformis strain VVA21. These sequence data have been submitted to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession number MF581271.1. 

Conclusion: The Bacillus licheniformis VVA21, isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated mangrove soil, showed high potentials for cellulase production with high stability over broad temperature and pH ranges.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Multi-drug Resistance Pattern of Escherichia coli in Different Ages and Gender of Urinary Tract Infected Patients

Rokaia Sultana, Palash Chandra Sarkar, Jakia Khan, Suvamoy Datta

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/41140

Aims: To find out the prevalence of multi-drug resistance pattern of Escherichia coli in urinary tract infected patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Study Design: The study was influenced by recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and presence of high multi-drug resistant (MDR) E. coli.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Primeasia University, Institute of Laser

Surgery and Hospital, Millennium Heart & General Hospital, between January to December 2017.

Methodology: Total 605 patients (age range <1-80 years) were included as sample populations. Followed by overnight enrichment of urine samples in LB medium at 37ºC, isolates were confirmed as uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) by using selective media and biochemically through oxidase, indole and citrate test. All the isolates were examined for antibiotic susceptibility to fifteen commonly used antimicrobial agents by disk diffusion assay on Mueller Hinton agar results were interpreted by following the guideline of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).

Result: About 38% (230 out of 605) UPEC have been screened out. Prevalence of E. coli was observed high (58%) in female patients and the most vulnerable age group was (50-80) which showed approximately 63% presence of UPEC. Almost 100% isolates have become considered as multi-drug resistant (>5 drugs). All the isolates showed 100% resistance against rifamicin, while no resistance was observed against colistin. Statistically, antibiotic resistance of UPEC against meropenem and amikacin was significant within male and female. Most alarming resistance have been observed against commonly prescribed antibiotic, 4th generation cephalosporin (cefipime) and ciprofloxacin were 95% and 74% respectively, 3rd generation cephalosporin (ceftriaxone 97%, cefixime 90%, ceftazidime 83%). At the same time 94% isolates showed resistance to vancomycin, 89% to piperacillin, 91% to azithromycin, 87% to gentamicin, 66% to nitrofurantoin, 59% to amikacin, 47% to meropenem and 45% to imipenem.

Conclusion: This finding is useful for the determination of appropriate antimicrobial treatment in UTI patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaves and Stem Bark Extracts of Sarcocephalus latifolius

Oluremi, Bolaji, Oloche, Jeremiah John, Fasusi, Emmanuel Toluwani, Lawal, Musa Adisa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/41887

Sarcocephalus latifolius is reported to have a wide range of medicinal properties and it is commonly used in the treatment of malaria, hypertension, diarrhea, dysentery and dental problems. Considering its characteristics, it is important to identify the phytochemical constituents and further evaluate the antimicrobial activity. Thus, this study was designed to identify the phytochemical constituents and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the leaf and stem bark extracts of Sarcocephalus latifolius on bacteria strains isolated from dental samples. The phytochemical compounds in leaf and stem bark extracts of Sarcocephalus latifolius were analyzed using GC-QP-MS. The mixture of bioactive compounds present in leaf and stem extracts of Sarcocephalus latifolius were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for inhibition of growth using agar-cup-diffusion method. Results emerging from this study show that a total of 19 compounds and 25 compounds were identified from the leaf and stem bark extracts respectively. Decanoic acid, decanoic acid, benzene carboxylic acid and terpenes; phytol and farnesyl acetate were identified to be the main constituents.  Furthermore, the extracts at concentrations of 25-50 mg/ml inhibited the growth of bacteria isolates in a manner that is comparable to the standard antibiotic (p<0.05). The significant zones of inhibition of bacterial growth by leaf and stem extracts of Sarcocephalus latifolius validates the use of extracts of Sarcocephalus latifolius in traditional medicine and as a promising source of antimicrobial agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Aetiology and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Post-Operative Sepsis among Surgical Patients in a Tertiary Hospital in Rural Eastern Uganda

Masifa George, Jacob Stanley Iramiot, Rita Muhindo, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Ann Nanteza

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/41690

Background: Post-operative wound sepsis remains a surgical challenge of public health concern constituting approximately 20% of the health care-associated nosocomial infections. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from post-operative wound infections at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from June to October 2015. Study participant samples were sub-cultured upon reception in the Microbiology laboratory and the isolated bacterial pathogens were analysed. Phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined using the Kirby-Bauer method. Interpretation of the zone diameters was done following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Phenotypic screening for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was performed using oxacillin (1 µg). D-test was also performed for phenotypic screening of inducible clindamycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel and analysed using IBM SPSS statistics (version 16).

Results: Overall post-operative sepsis was 69/80 (86.2%) with Staphylococcus aureus as the most predominant organism 41/104 (39.4%) followed by Escherichia coli 22/104 (21.2%) and Klebsiella species 15/104 (14.4%). Of the 41/104 isolated Staphylococcus aureus, 27/41(65.9%) were MRSA strains and 5/41 (12.2%) were inducible clindamycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The isolated Staphylococcus aureus was resistant to multiple drugs though susceptible to vancomycin and clindamycin. In addition, none of the isolated Enterococci species was vancomycin resistant. Although most of the isolated Gram-negative organisms were sensitive to imipenem, resistance was observed for tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, and ceftriaxone. 

Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative agent associated with post-operative sepsis with most of the strains being MRSA. Multi-drug resistance was observed in 63/104 (60.6%) of the isolated organisms in our study. Hence the need to better develop and strengthen antimicrobial stewardship programs as well as to understand the carriage of antimicrobial resistance genes among these organisms.