Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Dengue Virus in Samples from Suspected Yellow Fever Cases in Ghana

Lawrence H. Ofosu-Appiah, Richard Kutame, Bright Ayensu, Joseph H. K. Bonney, Gifty Boateng, Rexford Bempong Adade, David Opare, John Kofi Odoom

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/41090

Background: Dengue fever remains a serious public health treat throughout the world. Ghana shares borders with countries that have reported dengue cases, yet no case has been reported in Ghana. Dengue infections with its broad range of clinical presentations make it potentially unrecognized by clinicians. In this study, serological tests were used to detect antigens and antibodies and molecular tests were used to detect viral RNA specific to dengue viruses in archived human serum specimens in Ghana.

Methods: Blood samples of 360 patients aged 6 months to 82 years old with suspected yellow fever in hospitals across Ghana were tested for dengue virus exposure. Samples were screened using SD Dengue NS1 Ag ELISA and the SD Dengue IgM/ IgG capture ELISA test, which detects dengue virus antigen and antibodies to dengue virus in human blood.

Results: A total of 360 serum samples were tested, 8% (29/360) were found positive by the antigen/antibody ELISA test, 2.5% (9/360) were positive by NS1 ELISA with 1.9% (7/360) and 3.6% (13/360) being positive by IgM and IgG ELISA respectively. None of the specimens tested positive by real-time RT-PCR. 0.6% (2/360) of cases tested positive for both NS1 and IgG. The proportion of NS1 antigen positivity was highest in the Brong Ahafo region 0.33 (3/9) followed by Ashanti and Upper West regions with 0.22 (2/9) respectively. IgM positivity was, however, highest in Upper West 0.43 (3/7).

Conclusion: Introduction of dengue virus surveillance with routine diagnosis will serve to alert the health system of the possible outbreak and also minimize spread in the event of an outbreak in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Susceptibility Analysis of Carbapenem Resistant Gram-negative Pathogens in Super Specialty Tertiary Care Center, Mumbai, India

Dhruv K. Mamtora, Sanjith Saseedharan, Pallavi Bhalekar, Surekha Katakdhond

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/38085

Aim: Taking into account the rise in mortality rate due to multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, we purposed to retrospectively analyze the susceptibility behavior of 74 carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates towards common antibiotic classes [Sulphomide, β-lactams (BL), β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination (BL/BLI), aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, quinolone, peptide and glycylcycline] and a novel antibiotic-adjutant entity, CSE-1034 [Ceftriaxone/ Sulbactam/disodium edetate].

Materials and Methods: To characterize the anti-bacterial susceptibility pattern, a retrospective, observational analysis of antibiogram data obtained from different clinical samples in Super Speciality tertiary care center, Mumbai (India) between January 2015 to December 2015 was performed. 74 carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates with MIC>16 against imipenem and meropenem were analyzed in this study. K. pneumoniae (47.30%) was found to be the most common pathogen among all clinical isolates followed by A. baumannii (17.57%), E. coli (14.86%) and P. aeruginosa (10.81%).

Results: Antibiogram data suggested colistin as the most susceptible drug against all carbapenem-resistant isolates followed by tigecycline. CSE-1034 was determined as third most susceptible drug. The susceptibility rates of K. pneumoniaeA. baumanniiE. coli and P. aeruginosa to CSE-1034 were 81.8%, 57.1%, 69.2% and 75%.  The susceptibility to aminoglycosides varied from zero for A. baumanni to 63.6% for E. coli in case of amikacin and 8.57% for K. pneumoniae and 37.5% for P. aeruginosa in case of gentamicin. The susceptibility to all other antibiotics tested was very poor. 

Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that along with colistin and tigecycline, CSE-1034 and aminoglycosides can be considered for patients infected with carbapenem-resistant strains. Moreover, CSE-1034 or aminoglycosides can be good alternates in carbapenem resistant bloodstream, and urinary tract infections as tigelcycline is not preferred agent in these infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea in Ibibio Land: A Survey

Justina Sunday Ikoedem, Chinweizu Ejikeme Udobi, Ememobong Gideon Asuquo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/41575

Diarrhoea is the passing of loose or watery stools at least three times per day or more frequently than normal for an individual. It is closely associated with poor hygiene and under nutrition. Medicinal plants have been known to provide alternatives to orthodox medicine in the treatment of diarrhoea in most parts of Africa. This survey was carried out to document the various medicinal plants and their use in the treatment of diarrhoea in Ibibio land, Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria. The outcome showed a total of 14 plants species of 9 families, with the family Anacardiaceae being the most commonly used, while Ocimum gratissimum was the most used plant. The leaves remained the part of the plant commonly used, and the most commonly used method of administration was by a decoction of the plant part. An ethnobotanical survey of the plants used in other locations for the same purpose, which is also present in Ibibio land gave a total of 53 plant species of 41 families mostly Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, Combretaceae and Lamiaceae. A comprehensive list of medicinal plants which will provide an array of options for the treatment of diarrhoea especially in areas where there are no healthcare facilities is therefore provided. Future investigations should aim to isolate, purify, and identify their bioactive components.

Open Access Original Research Article

Examination of the Production of Biofilm and Acyl Homoserine Lactone (AHL) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Exposed to Sub-inhibitory Antibiotics Concentrations

Cetin Kilinc, Ridvan Gückan, Ceren Baskan, Onder İdil

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/40822

It is possible to be exposed to sub-inhibitory antibiotics concentrations due to either patients or physicians during antibiotic therapy. In this study, we aimed to examine the production of biofilm and acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates which were exposed to sub-inhibitory antibiotics concentrations.

In this study, The bacteria incubated in Muller Hinton agar in the oven and placed antibiotic discs onto them. As the distance increases from the antibiotic discs, the effective concentration of antibiotic decreases. Furthermore, the zone without bacterial growth ends from the place where the effect of antibiotic decreases to sub-inhibitory concentration and bacterial growth starts.A model by accepting this zone in which the bacteria are exposed to the sub-inhibitory antibiotic concentration have established. The four different Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of amikacin, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, ceftazidime and colistin antibiotics for 5 days. Biofilm productions of isolates pre and post exposures the antibiotic were determined using microtitration plaque. Furthermore, the cross-feeding assay was performed for AHL detection.

Biofilm production was observed in all isolates exposed to 3 isolates ceftazidime when exposed to cefepime, in 3 isolates when exposed to ciprofloxacin, in 2 isolates when exposed to colistin, in 2 isolates when exposed to amikacin, in 2 isolates when exposed to gentamicin, in 1 isolate when exposed to imipenem, and in 1 isolate when exposed to meropenem. Some of these antibiotics affected the AHL production, whereas some others deteriorated the AHL production. It was observed that all of the sub-inhibitory antibiotic concentrations led to biofilm production. Some of them increased the biofilm production in all 4 isolates, whereas some others increased the biofilm production in at least 1 isolate. The most effective group in biofilm production was the cephalosporin group and less biofilm production was observed with the carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem).

We detected that biofilm production continued in strains in which there was no AHL production or the AHL production was deteriorated. This study found, that there was no relationship between the AHL production of strains and the biofilm production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Canine Herpesvirus Infection on Dogs

Orhan Yapici, Oguzhan Avci, Oya Bulut, Sibel Hasircioglu, Mehmet Kale, Atilla Simsek, Sibel Yavru

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/41967

Canine herpesvirus (CHV) seems to be present worldwide in both domestic and wild dogs. Serologic surveys have shown a relatively high prevalence of CHV in household and colony-bred dogs. Blood samples were collected from dogs in dog shelters or dog collection centres in Konya and Antalya that showed clinical signs of the disease. In total, 141 blood samples were examined for antibodies to CHV by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas the blood leukocyte samples obtained from the dogs were assessed by immunoflouresence test (IFT) for isolation of CHV. Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were used for virus isolation. Ninety-seven samples (68.8%) were detected as seropositive; while no positive results were identified using IFT. In conclusion, the high seropositivity may indicate that CHV infection is common in dog shelters or dog collection centres in Turkey and infected animals with CHV need to be identified and quarantined.