Open Access Minireview Article

Antibacterial and Antifungal Effect of Cinnamon

Wisal, G. Abdalla

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/41345

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. Traditional uses of Cinnamon throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe have been recorded, where it has been used as a medicine. Many researches were done to study the effect of cinnamon as antifungal and antibacterial cause skin, oral infection and foodborne bacteria. The antibacterial activity was certified to the presence of some phytochemicals in the extracts and recommended that it was possibly due to their major component cinnamaldehyde.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Cofee Weed (Senna occidentalis) Leaf Aqueous Extract as Probiotic on the Performance of Broiler Chickens in Humid Tropical Environment

S. O. Omoikhoje, D. O. Obasoyo, S. E. Okosun, J. I. Uwaya, I. Adamu, E. Idahor

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/40971

Aim: To investigate the growth performance, carcass traits, organ weights, costs and returns of 120 day-old Aborican broiler chicks placed on different dosages of Senna occidentalis leaf aqueous extract.

Study Design: Completely randomized design (CRD) was used.

Place and duration of study: Department of Animal  Science,  Poultry Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State of Nigeria between June and July 2017 (eight weeks).

Methodology: Twenty four chicks were randomly selected based on their average initial weights and assigned to five  dosages  (0,  25,  50,  75  and  100 ml) of coffee weed leaf aqueous extract  (CWLAE) designated as T1, T2, T3, T4  and T5 with T1  serving as positive control. Each treatment group contained three replicates with eight birds per replicate.

Results: Data on growth performance showed   that only the final live weight and daily weight gain were  significantly (P=.05) higher in birds that had 50mls of  coffee  weed leaf  aqueous  extract and lowest in those placed on 100 mls of CWLAE  at the finisher phase. Carcass traits revealed that live weight, plucked weight, eviscerated weight and dressing percentage were significantly (P=.05) higher among birds that had 50ml of CWLAE compared to other dietary treatments. The relative weights of drumstick, thighs, breast, wings, neck, back, shanks, abdominal fat, lungs, liver, heart, whole gizzard and bursa were significantly (P=.05) influenced by the treatments.  The costs and returns analyses of broiler chickens revealed that cost of feed consumed and cost of feed per kilogram weight gain was lowest among birds placed on the control, but the highest income and net profit were recorded among birds placed on 50 mls of coffee weed leaf aqueous extract.

Conclusion: Senna occidentalis aqueous leaf extracts can be used as a probiotic additive at 50 mls / liter of water to enhance the performance, carcass traits, cost and returns of broiler chickens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of New Mutations in 23S rRNA Gene of Helicobacter Pylori in Gastric Biopsies in Abidjan

C. V. Mbengue Gbonon, F. B. Diplo Tchepe, Kacou Ngazoa, N. Guessennd, A. F. Yapo, S. N. D. Coulibaly, A. J. Djaman, M. Dosso

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/39376

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of mutations in 23S rRNA gene, conferring resistance to clarithromycin of Helicobacter pylori from gastric biopsies in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire).

Place and Duration: Between August 2015 and February 2016, gastric biopsies were collected from adult patients in endoscopy room in Gastroenterology Department of Hospital and University Center of Cocody (Abidjan), then stored. From October to December 2016, laboratory tests were performed in Bacteriology-Virology department, molecular biology platform of Institute Pasteur of Côte d'Ivoire, and sequencing platform at Eurofins (Cochin, France). 

Methodology: Helicobacter pylori DNA was extracted directly from stored gastric biopsies. Detection of 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori resistance to clarithromycin was done through conventional PCR and was quantified using a NanoDrop® spectrophotometer, Lite (Thermo Fischer Scientific, USA), followed by sequencing from Eurofins, MWG / operon (Cochin, France). The reference strains used for sequence comparison were selected from NCBI's Genbank's database with the accession number U27270.1. 

Results: A new unreported T> C substitution was identified at 100% (3/3) at position 2616 (T2616C) compared to the reference strain. 

Conclusion: The presence of a constant mutation, not yet described in 23S rRNA gene does require monitoring when the frequency of this mutation is probably responsible for future generations of mutant clones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Gut Enterotypes in Egyptian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Shwikar M. Abdelsalam Ahmed, Azza Mahmoud El-Hefnawy, Hanan Azouz, Marwa Ahmed Meheissen, Mona Hamdy, Yara Safwat Roshdy, Ahmed Elsayed Ibrahim

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/41460

Background: Gut microbiota distribute into three enterotypes named the Bacteroides, Prevotella and Ruminococcus. While each person’s microbial “fingerprint” is unique, there are specific patterns seen in those that are healthy and those that have specific illnesses.

Aims: The aim of the present study is to identify the enterotypes that are likely related to ASD as well as their possible role in the severity of the disease and gastrointestinal symptoms

Subjects & Methods: The study included 41 ASD patients, 45 of their neurotypical siblings and 45 unrelated controls. Autism severity was assessed using Childhood autism rating scale (CARS). Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a modified six-item Gastrointestinal Severity Index (6-GSI) questionnaire. Quantitative real-time SYBR green PCR was done for the identification and quantitation of the dominant enterotypes.

Results: Enterotype 1 (Bacteriodes) was the most prevalent enterotype accounting for 76.7%, 75.6% and 57.8% in patients with autism, their neurotypical siblings and unrelated controls respectively. Enterotype 3 (Ruminococcus dominant), it was detected nearly equal in the three groups. Enterotype 2 (Prevotella dominant), it was the least enterotype encountered in ASD group (4.9%) compared to 8.9% and 22.2% in the siblings and the unrelated control respectively. About 75.6% of ASD patients shared the same enterotype with their siblings. There was no significant difference between the three enterotypes as regards the CARS or 6-GSI.

Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the distribution of enterotypes in all study groups. Therefore, collapsing the whole microbiome variations into dominant enterotypes was not appropriate to identify disease association or to be used as a disease biomarker. Further studies of individual bacterial species may be more accurate to determine if there are any possible correlations between the gut microbiome and the gastrointestinal dysfunction in ASD patients.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Claims of Microbiological Activity and Microbiological Quality of Some Oral Herbal Medicinal Products Sold in Port-Harcourt Metropolis

C. N. Stanley, C. Ibezim, F. C. Diorgu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/41462

The incidences of chemotherapeutic failure and high cost of orthodox medicines may have led to increased use of herbal medicinal products as alternative medicines. However, the non-standardization and improper regulation of these herbal products in countries like Nigeria may raise a lot of questions about the inherent health risk associated with the consumption of these products. This study was carried out to evaluate the claims of antimicrobial activity and microbiological quality of some herbal products sold in Port Harcourt Metropolis. Forty (40) herbal medicinal products were examined in this study. All claimed to have antibacterial effect and had National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) registration number. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirablis, Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the herbal samples. The bacterial isolates were characterized and identified by standard microbiological and biochemical methods.  Antibacterial susceptibility of the isolates was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The claims of antibacterial activity of the 40 samples were tested against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Forty (40) percent and fifty (50) percent of the liquid and solid dosage forms respectively were found to have gross microbial contamination above the recommended limit according to the National Policy for Assessments of Herbal Products, 2007. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in approximately sixty-four (64) percent and twenty-nine (29) percent of the solid and liquid dosage forms respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that most of the herbal products contained pathogenic bacteria with single and multiple drug resistance patterns. The need for Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), standardization, stricter controls and education to safeguard the health of the consuming public demands urgent attention.