Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatitis B Prevalence, Knowledge and Occupational Factors among Health Care Workers in Fako Division, South West Region Cameroon

Serge Ngekeng, Alain Chichom-Mefire, Peter Fon Nde, Dickson Shey Nsagha, Alphonse Tonia Nkuigue, Kevine Tiogouo, Franka Mbu Oben, Patou Franck Ekotang, Simeon Pierre Choukem

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/40445

Aims: Hepatitis B is a major public health problem in Cameroon and health care workers (HCWs) due to the nature of their work continue to be at high risk. Only very few studies have investigated the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence and its associated factors among health care workers in Cameroon. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate HBsAg prevalence as well as to assess knowledge and history of occupational exposure among HCWS in the Fako division of Cameroon.

Study Design:  A hospital based cross sectional study design was used for this study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in 12 different health institutions within the Fako Division, South West Cameroon in the month of February 2018.

Methodology: Our study included 281 HCWs (10 Doctors, 115 nurses, 26lab workers, 3 pharmacists, 8 social workers, 37 cleaners, and 82 interns) who were on duty during the study period. The male to female ratio was 0.35 with a modal age class of 18-29years. Data was collected using a pretested self administered structured questionnaire. HBsAg testing was done using Acon hepatitis B surface antigen rapid test strip (Acon Laboratories Inc. San Diego.CA). Categorical variables were compared using Chi square test or its equivalents and a P-value less than .05 was considered significant.

Results: From our study only 58.72% of participants had sufficient knowledge about hepatitis B infection and even less (33.1%) had sufficient knowledge concerning the transmission and prevention of the disease. Only 45.91% of participants had adequate knowledge about the hepatitis B vaccine similarly. Up to 86.22% of participants had been victims of at least one type of occupational exposure to blood and other infectious fluids. We recorded an HBsAg prevalence of 4.98% among HCWs and the male gender was significantly associated with the infection (P = .04). Age and other socio demographic factors were not found to be significantly associated to HBsAg prevalence.

Conclusion: HCWs have a low knowledge level about the hepatitis B infection, its transmission, prevention and vaccine. This is coupled with a high occurrence of occupational exposures among these HCWs. Therefore more effort should be made to educate HCWs about hepatitis B, especially those who are less qualified. The prevalence of 4.98% for HBsAg in HCWs in Fako Division is lower than in other regions of the country.


Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence and Antibiogram of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Locally-Pasteurised Cow Milk (Kindirmo) Sold in Parts of Nasarawa Town, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Y. Aliyu, C. R. Reuben, A. M. Sani, E. M. Salawu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/40294

This work was aimed at determining the occurrence and antibiogram of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from locally-pasteurised milk (kindirmo) sold in parts of Nasarawa Town, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. In this study, 123 samples were obtained from three different sampling points – Nasarawa Market, Tammah Area and Gunki Settlement. 12 samples yielded positive results for S. aureus, given an overall prevalence of 9.76%. Out of this positive samples, 6 positive samples were obtained from Nasarawa Market with a prevalence of 14.63%; 3 from Tammah Area with a prevalence of 7.32%, and 3 also were obtained from Gunki Settlement with a prevalence rate of 7.32%.  Although 41 samples were collected from each of the three different sampling points, the highest prevalence was observed in samples collected from Nasarawa Market, (14.63%), with Tammah Area and Gunki Settlement having an equal prevalence rate of 7.32%. the reason for the disparity from the three sampling areas was not deciphered as the hawkers seemed to have subjected the milk to the same method of treatment (heating the fresh milk to a specific temperature for some period). The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the 12 S. aureus isolates revealed that the majority of the isolates were highly susceptible to ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. The isolates were observed to have developed high resistance to ampiclox, amoxicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin. 10 resistant phenotypes were observed with varying combinations of 2,3,4,5 and 6 antibiotics. All the isolates had multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) index of 0.2 and above.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Detection of the Arr-2 Gene in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Resistant to Rifampicin in Abidjan, Côte D'Ivoire

Victoire Gadou, Nathalie Kouadio Guessennd, Abalé A.Toty, Fernique Konan, Mohamed Baguy Ouattara, Mireille Dosso, Seydina M. Diène, Joseph Allico Djaman, Jean-Marc Rolain

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/40552

Aims: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of rifampicin resistance arr-2 gene in certain enterobacteria of clinical origin from various biological products.

Place and Duration of Study: National Reference Center for Antibiotics of Pasteur Institute of Côte d'Ivoire, and research unit on emerging tropical infectious diseases of Aix-Marseille University, between January to July 2017.

Methodology: The strains were isolated from different biological samples and identified by biochemical tests and MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry. The Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by diffusion on Mueller- Hinton (MH) agar.

Results: All strains were resistant to rifampicin (100%) and amoxicillin (100%), but sensitive to imipenem and colistin. Conventional PCR using specific primers detected the arr-2 gene in four strains, including 3 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Escherichia coli. Molecular typing of the strains by MLST showed that the E. coli strain had ST 5 and the three strains of K. pneumoniae had ST 307, ST 309, ST 273 respectively.

Conclusion: This article is the first report that highlights the presence of the arr-2 gene in enterobacteria in Côte d’Ivoire

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Standardized Anti-malarial Herbal Tea (Malatreat) on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

Salome Ida-Awaji Eyaete, Hope Delesi Kagbo, Florence Onyemachi Nduka

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/40094

Aim: To investigate the curative effect of standardized anti-malarial herbal tea, Trade Name: Malatreat composed of 5 different herbs as follows: Sida acuta 10%, Tridax procumbens 15%, Alstonia boonei 35%, Phyllanthus amarus 25% and Citrus Sinensis 15% on malaria parasitemia in mice.

Study Design: Animals were separated into five groups of four animals each and housed in plastic cages. The animals were inoculated with Plasmodium berghei and treated with the standardized anti-malarial herbal tea, Trade name: Maltreat.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, between 8th September - 11th October 2017.

Methodology: A total of 20 mice were weighed and divided into five groups, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 of 4 mice each and used for this curative investigation. A pure strain of Plasmodium berghei was obtained from Malaria and Phytomedicine Research Centre, University of Port Harcourt. Five mice were inoculated with an isotonic solution of this pure strain Plasmodium berghei infected blood of 68% parasitaemia level and served as stock animals with the infection. All the animals in the various groups were inoculated with 0.5 ml of an isotonic solution composed of 1ml of blood from the stock (an infected animal with parasitaemia level of 75%), and 5ml of buffer and treatment commenced orally on the fourth day after inoculation.

Results: Parasitaemia levels were recorded on the third day after inoculation as follows; 12.06%, 7.95%, 13.62%, 20.1% and 16.05% for groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Parasitemia levels had a peak of 15.55%, 20.7%, 25.2% and 21.3% respectively in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 on 7th-day post-treatment. An observed (P= .05) reduction in the parasitaemia levels of the animals in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 occurred 14th-day post-treatment as follows; 10.16%, 9.36%, 11.82%, 7.9% respectively while group 5 had an increase to 68.75 %. Theparasite clearance levels in Groups 1 and two at day 14 post-treatment when compared to that of the standard drugs were highly significant (P= .05).

Conclusion: These results show that the herbal tea Malatreat (in two different doses) has the potential to reduce parasitaemia level in the blood stream of mice and has a parasite clearance level similar to the reference drugs Chloroquine and Coartem used in this study. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Fusarium Species Associated with Peach Decline in Tunisian Nurseries

Sabrine Mannai, Najwa Benfradj, Najet Horrigue-Raouani, Naima Boughalleb-M’Hamdi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/40746

Aims: To survey nurseries and diagnosis of the young peach seedlings decline, to investigate the Fusariumspecies associated with the decline of peach in Tunisian nurseries  using morphological and molecular tools and determine the pathogenicity of the most predominant species on peach seedlings.

Place and Duration of Study: Tunisian peach nurseries and Department of Biological Sciences and Plant Protection, Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem, 4042, Sousse, Tunisia, between November 2012 and July 2014.

Methodology: The surveys were conducted in peach nurseries. Five root samples were taken from each vigor of each peach variety. The isolation and the morphological identification were done on PDA medium. The molecular identification was done using ITS1 and ITS4. Pathogenicity tests were made for the dominant species which are F. oxysporum (25 isolates) and F. solani (8 isolates).

Results: The isolation was done on PDA medium and morphological and molecular identification (using ITS1 and ITS4) revealed the presence of 62 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, 32 isolates of F. solani, 7 isolates of F. equiseti, 4 isolates of F. proliferatum and 2 isolates of F. chlamydosporumF. oxysporum and F. solani were isolated from roots from all surveyed nurseries. F. equiseti were isolated from roots from nurseries in Chebika, Zaghouan and Monastir.  F. proliferatum was recovered from roots from nurseries in the Chebika and Zaghouan regions. F. chlamydosporum were recovered only from roots in nurseries at Monastir region. Pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani was evaluated by using two varieties of peach, Carnival and Royal Glory grafted onto the Garnem rootstock (Prunus dulcis x hybrid clonal of Prunus persica) planted in inoculated soil.  Symptoms of peach decline namely browning of the apical vegetative part, height reduction and collar rot. These two Fusarium species were more virulent on Carnival than Royal Glory. Fusarium solani induced root and collar rot symptoms whereas F. oxysporum induced necrotic roots symptom, browning and height reduction.

Conclusion: This finding showed that Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were the most dominant species. They were virulent to peach seedlings.