Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of CD4 T Lymphocyte Cell Levels among Hepatitis B, C and E Viruses Negative Individuals in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

M. O. Adewumi, E. C. Omoruyi, I. M. Ifeorah, A. S. Bakarey, A. O. Ogunwale, A. Akere, T. O. C. Faleye, J. A. Adeniji

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/38401

Aim: The CD4 T lymphocytes play a key role in achieving a regulated effective immune response to foreign antigens. It is also a valuable parameter for assessing HIV disease progression. However, variations in CD4 T lymphocyte values due to diverse factors have been reported. Here we evaluated CD4 T lymphocytes among community dwellers who tested negative for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and hepatitis E viruses and compared the results with the National Reference Values (NRVs). 

Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Participants were enrolled using a convenient sampling technique and their socio-demographic characteristics were captured by administration of semi-structured questionnaires.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted among residents of Ibadan metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria. Participants were enrolled between July and September, 2013 at the University College Hospital, Ibadan.

Methodology: Four hundred consenting participants who fulfilled the criteria for enrolment were evaluated for CD4 T lymphocyte counts.

Results: Estimated mean CD4 T lymphocyte count of 1,183 (CD4 Range: 328-2680) cells/µl of blood was recorded for the participants. Four (1.0%), 151 (37.8%), 157 (39.2%), 74 (18.5), and 14 (3.5) of the participants had CD4 T lymphocyte count ranged 352-500, 501-1,000, 1,001-1500, 1501-2,000, and >2,000 cells/µl of blood, respectively. Differences in the estimated mean CD4 count between different age groups varied significantly (P=0.010).

Conclusion: In this study, significantly higher CD4 T lymphocyte values were observed among the study population in comparison to the NRVs, and consequently we advise careful interpretation and use of extrapolated CD4 T lymphocyte values in the management of persons with diverse geographical background or health conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s Yeast) on the Fermentation of Ogi-A Nigerian Fermented Food

I. A. Adesokan, Y. A. Ekanola, D. A. Onifade, O. O. Bolarinwa

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/33041

Ogi is a traditional fermented food produced from maize and serves as breakfast food for the majority of the population and is a good food choice for the sicks. Locally produced Ogi varies in its quality and shelf life because it is produced without any starter culture. In order to standardize ogi production there is need to use appropriate starter culture for ogi production. In this work influence of processing method and the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) on quality attributes of ogi samples was investigated. Maize samples soaked in water for two days were allowed to germinate. The sprouted and unsprouted maize samples were wet milled and then inoculated with yeast S. cerevisiae. The samples were then fermented, and physico-chemical and microbiological changes was determined during fermentation. There was significant drop in the final pH values of the four preparation from changes 5.65 down to 3.51. Mean while, respective titratable acidity (TTA) increased on average from 0.175 up to 0.220 g/L. The total viable count of yeasts increases from 9.80 x 107 to 1.26 x 1014 cfu/mL. While, the fungal count increased within narrow ranges from 3.0 X 107 up to 3.2X1013 cfu/mL. The coliform counts were reduced steadily and completely disappeared after 48 hours of fermentation. The four ogi preparations were quite high in their moisture contents (7 0 - 76.5%). The crude protein contents fluctuated between 1.82 and 5.47% in the (4) ogi products. This work showed that ogi prepared from unsprouted maize grains and without yeast fermentation ranked highest with regard to highest protein content and sensory evaluation and received overall acceptability of 7.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthetic Elicitor-Induced Defense Responses in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire against Bacterial Wilt Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

Amari Ler-N’Ogn Dadé Georges Elisée, N’guessan Aya Carine, Bomisso Edson Lezin, Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire, Ake Sévérin, Kone Daouda

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/38917

Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum still constitutes tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) economical disease in the world. This disease is favored by very humid soils and high temperatures. Genetic control currently used is the most effective strategy. Disease control in crops has also become possible through the induction of plant defense reaction. This work aims at assessing the effect of both synthetic elicitors (BABA and ASM) supposed to induce tomato defense reaction against bacteria and particularly Ralstonia solanacearum. BABA and ASM solutions were each applied at concentrations of 5 to 100 ppm on R. solanacearum in vitro, and its growth was recorded. Then, the in vivo development of bacterial wilt was assessed following different elicitors application modes to both local tomato cultivars Tropimech and Caraïbo respectively sensitive and tolerant to this disease. Up to 100 ppm, BABA and ASM elicitors showed no antibacterial effect against R. solanacearum. However, these elicitors revealed a protective action against the development of bacterial wilt after inoculation of R. solanacearum. Compared to leaf treatment, the supply of elicitors to roots or successively to roots and leaves reduced the development of bacterial wilt by more than 50%. Both tomato varieties (Tropimech and Caraibo) expressed identical resistance levels facing Ralstonia solanacearum after BABA and ASM application. The elicitation of tomato plants could be an ecological approach for effective control of R. solanacearum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chlamydiasis and Human Heat Shock Protein 60-KDa Expression among Women with Miscarriages in Sokoto Metropolis, North-Western Nigeria

T. H. I. Spencer, U. Yahaya, K. Mohammed, D. E. Argbonlahor, A. E. J. Okwori, M. K. Garba, S. U. Nataala

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/35552

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the role of C. trachomatis and expression of human heat shock protein-60 in pregnancy loss among women with miscarriages in Sokoto Metropolis. North-western, Nigeria.

Study Design: Case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Specialists Hospital and Maryam Abacha women and children hospital, Sokoto between June, 2015 to August, 2016.

Methodology: A total of ninety (90) subjects comprising of fourty five women with miscarriages and fourty five women without any history of miscarriage served as control were involved in the study. Antibodies to C. trachomatis (IgG) and human heat shock protein-60 were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: The overall seroprevalence of C. trachomatis was 7.7%. The seroprevalence in the cases and control subjects were 11% and 4.4% respectively (χ2=0.6196, df=1, OR=2.688 (95% CI: 0.4930 to 14.65); p= 0.4312). The mean and standard error of mean of the Human heat shock protein 60 among the cases and control subject were  20.9 ± 0.8 and 23.2 ± 1.6(ng/mL).

Conclusion: In this present study, it was conclude that antibodies to C. trachomatis was detected more 5/45 (11.0%) in women with miscarriage than 2/45 (4.4%) in women without any history of miscarriage. Estimation of human heat shock protein-60 could serve as a marker to complement the laboratory diagnosis C. trachomatis including pregnancy loss.It was also suggested that women with previous exposure to C. trachomatis have a risk of miscarriage with an odd ratio of 2.688.Public awareness and preconception screening is advocated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Antimicrobial Resistance among Primary Health Care Workers in Buyende District, Rural Eastern Uganda

Ahebwa Amelia, Akol Walter, Achong Emmanuel, Mugerwa Timothy, Nakayenga Aminah, Omega Phillip, Rebecca Nekaka, Iramiot Jacob Stanley

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/38832

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of antimicrobial resistance among Primary Health Care Workers in Buyende district.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study employing qualitative and quantitative methods. Administration of a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and practices of health workers in Buyende community was conducted. The study was designed to cover all health workers involved in prescribing and dispensing drugs in selected health facilities of Buyende district. The participants were from four health facilities (Kidera Health Center IV, Nkondo Health Center III, Buyende Health Centre III and Miseru Health Center III) and ten private community drug shops. Health care workers were assigned to different cords for the data collection process.  One hundred twenty-four (124) respondents participated in the survey, representing a majority of the health workers in Buyende district.

Results: Most respondents (75%) reported receiving information about antibiotic resistance with medical training school (67.2%) being the main source of information. Sixty-six percent (66%) of the participants believed that the widespread use of antibiotics is an important cause of resistance, while 60% attribute antimicrobial resistance to inadequate restrictions on antibiotic prescription due to advertising and promotion by pharmaceutical companies. Guidelines for the use of antibiotics against common infections and regular microbiological consultations/ward rounds were reported as crucial in controlling the problem of anti-microbial resistance. Though most health workers reported following clinical guidelines when prescribing antibiotics (79%), a substantial proportion still prescribed use of antibiotics for the treatment against common cold/cough (64%) and viral infections (44%).

Conclusion: The awareness of anti-microbial resistance is a public health problem in rural Eastern Uganda. Campaigns for appropriate prescription and awareness of anti-microbial resistance should include educating the public and rural health care workers with the aim of decreasing the emergence antibiotic resistant microbes.