Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activities of Three Spices on Some Human Bacterial Pathogens

D. J. Ajose, B. A. Adeniyi, T. A. Bamidele

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/37904

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens against spice extracts.

Place of Study: Microbiology laboratory of Bells University of Technology; between August, 2015 to July, 2016.

Methodology: The three spices; Capsicum annuum (cayenne), Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Piper guineense (black pepper) were analyzed for the presence and absence of metabolites using standard methods and also tested for their activity against some clinical bacterial pathogens namely: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus species, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Antibacterial testing was done using agar diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar plates following standard methods.

Results: This study demonstrated that the three spices contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and terpenoids. Piper guineense extract was most active against all tested isolates with MIC of 2.5% v/v against Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli and 5% v/v against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Conclusion: All the tested extracts showed varying spectra of inhibitions of the indicator organisms with Piper guineense the most active.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Properties of Spicy Lactic Fermented Tigernut-milk Drink Monitored during Ambient and Refrigeration Temperature Storage

N. Maduka

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/37698

The development of non-dairy fermented products is fast gaining acceptability due to its unique benefits. Several factors such as storage conditions, processing methods and constituent of such products usually affect its physicochemical properties. Tigernut-milk drink fermented by mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from ‘ogi’ identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. acidophilus, L. brevis and Streptococcus thermophilus using API 50 CHL test kit was separately spiced with 3%, 5% ginger; 3%, 5% garlic. Each tigernut-milk drink was stored at ambient (28±2°C) and refrigeration (4±2°C) temperature for 12 weeks. Non-spiced lactic fermented tigernut-milk drink was the control. At 4 weeks interval, ethanol content, calorific value and total soluble solids (TSS) in the drink were monitored. During ambient and refrigeration temperature storage, there was increase in ethanol content of the spiced and non-spiced lactic fermented tigernut-milk drinks. Maximum ethanol content of spicy lactic fermented tigernut-milk drink stored at 4±2°C and 28±2°C was 0.73 g/L and 0.96 g/L, respectively. At both storage conditions, non-spiced lactic fermented tigernut-milk drink had the highest ethanol content 1.76 g/L. There was reduction in calorific value with few exceptions and continuous reduction in TSS which ranged between (245.08-134.41 Kcal) and (14.31-5.29 °B) in the spicy lactic fermented tigernut-milk drinks during storage at 28±2°C and 4±2°C, respectively. This study revealed that calorie content and total soluble solids in ginger and garlic spiced lactic fermented tigernut-milk drinks considerably reduced during the period of storage at ambient and refrigeration temperature with few exceptions while ethanol content of the drinks consistently increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolated Bacterial Uropathogens among Pregnant Women Diagnosed with Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Harare, Zimbabwe

Musona- Rukweza Judith, F. Gidiri Muchabayiwa, Nziramasanga Pasipanodya, Stray- Pedersen Babill, O. Haruzivishe Clara

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/38356

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify bacterial uropathogens responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women registering for antenatal care at selected clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe.

Study Design: A cross sectional study design was conducted at 4 selected primary health care centres in Harare in Zimbabwe. The study period stretched for 18 weeks from 23 March to 27 June 2017. 

Methodology: Mid- stream urine samples for 240 pregnant women registering and visiting 4 selected clinics for antenatal care were examined for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Griess nitrate test was used to screen the samples. All samples that grew significant bacteriuria were further tested by culture test. Uropathogens isolated from urine samples which had significant growth were identified by using morphology, gram stain and several biochemical tests.

Results: Out of 240 urine samples examined, 34 were significant for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Ten bacteria strains were identified. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most popular (29.4%) followed by Escherichia coli (23.5%). The identified species also included staphylococcus aureus (11.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.8%), and Bacillus (8.8%).

Conclusion: A variety of bacterial uropathogens both gram negative and gram positive, are responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most commonly identified bacteria followed by Escherichia coli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of the Genetic Supports for Betalactam Resistance in Escherichia coli Strains of Porcine Origin Producing Extended-spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)

I. K. Kouadio, N. Guessennd, A. Dadié, A. Konaté, V. Gbonon, B. Tiékoura, S. Kpoda, M. B. Ouattara, F. Konan, A. Ajayi, M. Djè, M. Dosso

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/38449

Aims: The study was to evaluate the genetic potential of beta-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolated from the faecal flora of piglets.

Place and Duration of Study: National Reference Center for Antibiotics and Molecular Biology Platform of Pasteur Institute of Côte d'Ivoire, between June 2017 at July 2017.

Methodology: A detection of E. coli strains were carried out from 30 samples of faeces of piglets after five-day of treatment with amoxicillin was studied. The isolation of E. coli was performed on MacConkey agar supplemented with amoxicillin and identification using biochemical test. The Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out according to diffusion method in agar medium.

Results: The genetic supports for betalactam resistance, in particular the bla TEMbla SHV and bla CTX-Mgenes, have been detected by PCR in strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). A total of thirty five (35) E. coli isolates (35%) showed ESBL production. The bla TEMbla SHV   and blaCTX-M genes were detected with frequency of 51%, 40% and 31% respectively. The strains were resistant to antibiotics from other families with the most common resistance profile consisting of tetracycline (100%), trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole (80%), gentaminicin (70%), kanamycin (70%) and streptomycin (90%).

Conclusion: The detection of bla genes which are plasmid borne, therefore potentially horizontally transmissible to other strains, constitute a risk to public health and requires a monitoring of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the animal production sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Analysis of Dumpsites in Bwari, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria

U. Eleanya Evangeline, T. O. Oyegue, P. G. Rwang, T. O. Ozoude, N. F. Okey-Ndeche

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/MRJI/2017/33610

Open dumpsite system is practiced in Bwari as in most cities in Nigeria. Decomposing wastes, soil samples and aerial samples were taken from the two major dumpsites in Bwari; Bwari Complex Dumpsite and Bwari Area Council Dumpsite (referred to dumpsites 1 and 2 respectively in this article). Sabouraud Dextrose, MacConkey and Nutrient agar plates in triplicates were exposed at a height of 2 M around the environment of the dumpsites. Control aerial samples were taken about 2 Km away from the dumpsites. Decomposing wastes and soil samples were collected from the dumpsites on ten consecutive days from different points of the dumpsites. These samples were cultured and incubated into nutrient agar and. Potato dextrose agar plates respectively using standard methods. The mean total bacterial count of the decomposing wastes and soil samples from the two dumpsites (1 and 2) were 7.4 x 106, 10.1 x 106 cfu/ml respectively and 5.5 x 105, 6.9 x 105 cfu/ml respectively. The mean total fungal count from the decomposing wastes and soil samples from the two dumpsites (1 and 2) were 4.2 x102 cfu/ml, 6.1 x102 cfu/ml respectively and 4.6 x102 cfu/ml, 4.8 x102 cfu/ml respectively. The mean total fungal count isolated from the aerial samples was 0.2x101 cfuml and 0.3 x101 cfu/ml respectively. No bacterial growth occurred on the aerial plates, and no microbe was isolated from the control aerial samples. Visual examination, Gram stain, and. biochemical tests were used to identify the organisms. Results obtained were compared with standard references of Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 2nd edition. To identify the fungal isolates, Lactophenol cotton blue test was done on the isolates and viewed under the microscope. The morphology was compared with Standard fungal manuals. Salmonella spp, Pseudomonas spp, and Klebsiella spp, were isolated both from the decomposing wastes and soil samples. Staphylococcus spp, Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp were isolated only from the decomposing wastes, Bacillus spp was isolated only from the soil samples. Mucor spp, and Aspergillus niger were isolated from both the decomposing wastes, soil and aerial samples. Fusarium spp and Rhizopus spp were isolated only from the decomposing wastes and soil samples. Management of solid waste reduces or eliminates adverse impacts on the environment, and human health, it supports economic development and improved quality of life.